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'IN UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA. NO 59 



Montana High 
School Debat- 
ing League 




OCTOBER, 1909 



Montana High School 
Debating League 



ANNOUNCEMENT FOR THE YEAR 
1909—1910 




ISSUED BY THE UNIVERSITY 
OF MONTANA 



PRINTED BY 

HASSLER BROTHERS 

MISSOULA, MONT 



....OFFICERS.... 



FOR THE YEAR 1909—1910 



G. P. REYNOLDS, Missoula, 
President. 



W. F. CLARKE, Forsyth, 

Director, Eastern District. 



G. A. KETCHAM, Kalispell, 

Director, Northern District. 



E. J. PARKIN, Bozeman, 

Director, Southern District. 



A. J. ROBERTS, Helena. 

Director, Northern District 



ACCREDITED STATE HIGH SCHOOLS 



EASTERN DISTRICT 
SCHOOLS— PRINCIPALS— 

Billings J. A. Dallas 

Columbus J. H. Doyle 

Forsyth .. J. E. Baltzell 

Glendive R. L. Hunt 

Lewistown H. L. Sackett 

Miles City . . J. A. Burger 

Red Lodge A. C. Carlson 

NORTHERN DISTRICT 

Chinook G. H. Willmau 

Chouteau B. E. Toan 

*'ort Benton J. W. Lennmg 

Glasgow D. S. Williams 

Great Falls Arthur D. Wiggin 

Kalispell G. A. Ketcham 

SOUTHERN DISTRICT 

Big Timber W. C. Ryan 

Bozeman , E. J. Parkin 

Butte G. F. Downer 

Dillon L. R. Foote 

Livingston Lewis Terwilliger 

Virginia City , D. S. Clinger 

WESTERN DISTRICT 

Anaconda A. P. Hickson 

Boulder H. E. Harry 

Deer Lodge C. W. Street 

Helena A. J. Roberts 

Missoula j. F. Thomas 

Philipsburg , G. T. Bramble 

Townsend J. M. Kay 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 



-* 



Adopted by the High School Principals and City Superintendents, at. 
a Meeting at the University of Montana, May 17, 1906 



Amended May 16, 1907, May 14, 1908, and May 13, 1909. 



PREAMBLE. 



The object of this league is improvement in debate among the 
students in the high schools of the state of Montana. 

ARTICLE I. NAME. 

This organization shall be known as the Montana High School 
Debating League. 

ARTICLE II. DEBATING DISTRICTS. 

For convenience the state shall be divided into four debating 
districts, viz : 

Eastern District: Billings, Columbus, Forsyth, Glendive, Lewis- 
town, Miles City, Red Lodge. 

Northern District: Chinook, Chouteau, Fort Benton, Glasgow, 
Great Falls, Kalispell. 

Southern District: Big Timber, Bozeman, Butte, Dillon, Livings- 
ton, Virginia City. 

Western District: Anaconda, Boulder, Deer Lodge, Helena. 
Missoula, Philipsburg, Townsend. 

ARTICLE III. MEMBERSHIP. 

Section 1. Any high school in Montana which has been ac- 
credited by the University of Montana may become a member of 
this league by applying to the president of the league, or to the 
director of the district in which the school is situated. 

Section 2. All schools seeking admission for any particular year 
must joint at least ten days before the first contest in the first series 
in their respective district. 

ARTICLE IV. CONTESTS. 

Section 1. District Contests. The district contests, held by teams 
representing the several high schools within each district, shall occur 
between the first of October and the first of February. The team 
winning in the last series of these contests shall be the district 
champion team. 



Section 2. Inter-District Contests. The inter-district contests, 
held by the several district champion teams, shall occur between the 
first of February and the first of April. The two teams winning in 
these contests shall be the two inter-district champion teams. 

Section 3. Final Contest. The final contest, held by the two 
inter-district champion teams, shall occur between the fifteenth of 
April and the date set for the interscholastic meet, at the University 
of Montana (or at some other place in Missoula, selected by the presi- 
dent of the league). 

ARTICLE V. OFFICERS. 

Section 1. The officers of the league shall be a president and 
four district directors. 

Section 2. There shall be in each district one director, who shall 
be the principal (or other representative) of one of the league high 
schools in that district. 

It shall be the duty of the director — 

(a) To preside at the call meetings of the principals ( or other 
representatives) of the league high schools in his district. 

(o) To co-operate with the principals (or other representatives) 
of the league high schools in his district, in pairing the schools, and 
in making other arrangements for the several series of district con- 
tests, on the basis of convenience and expense. If, in any series of 
the district contests, any two schools that are paired by the director 
should fail to agree upon sides within one week after the preceding 
series of contests, the director shall appoint some one to determine 
sides by casting lots. 

(c) To furnish the president all necessary information with 
regard to all the workings of the league within his district, and to 
report from time to time to the Inter-Mountain Educator any news 
items that may be of interest to the league. 

Section 3. The president shall be a member of the faculty of the 
University of Montana. 

It shall be the duty of the president — 

(a) To preside at the annual meeting, and at the final contest, 
and, when necessary, to call meetings of directors. 

(o) To co-operate with the principals of the four schools repre- 
sented by the district champion teams in pairing these teams, and in 
making other arrangements for the inter-district contests, on the basis 
of convenience and expense. If, in the pairing of these teams for the 
inter-district contests, the principals of any two schools should not 
agree upon sides within one week after their schools have been paired, 
the president shall appoint some one to determine sides by casting lots. 

(c) To co-operate with the principals of the two schools that are 
to be represented in the final contest in making arrangements for 
that contest. If the principals of these two schools should not agree 
npon sides within one week after the last inter-district contest, the 
president shall appoint some one to determine sides by casting lots. 



(d) To prepare and have printed each year, before October 1st 
(at the expense of the university) a bulletin containing the latest 
revision of the constitution and by-laws, the names and addresses of 
the officers, the list of names of the high schools belonging to the 
league, and such other matter as, in his judgment, may be helpful to 
the members of the league. 

ARTICLE VI. THE DEBATERS. 

Section 1. The debaters shall be undergraduate students of the 
schools which they represent, and shall have passing grades to date 
in at least three full subjects (i. e. subjects that require at least 
four recitations a week) that they are taking at the time of the con- 
test. 

Section 2. The team that shall represent any league high school 
shall be selected by that school in any manner agreed upon by the 
principal, teachers, and students of that school. 

Section 3. At all contests the debaters shall be separated from 
the audience and shall receive no coaching while the debate is in 
progress. 

Section 4. At all contests the time and order of the speeches shall 
be as follows: 

1st speaker, affirmative, 12 minutes (introduction and direct argument). 
1st speaker, negative, 12 minutes (direct argument and refutation). 
2d speaker, affirmative, 12 minutes (direct argument and refutation). 
2d speaker, negative, 12 minutes (direct argument and refutation). 
3d speaker, affirmative, 12 minutes (direct argument and refutation). 
1st speaker, negative (or one of his colleagues), 5 minutes, (rebuttal and 

summary). 
1st speaker, affirmative (or one of his colleagues), 5 nrnutes, (rebuttal and 

summary). 

No argument allowed in either of the last two speeches. 

ARTICLE VII. THE JUDGES. 

Section 1. At each contest there shall be three judges, who shall 
be selected on the basis of capability and impartiality. 

Section 2. Selection of judges — 

(a) District and Inter-District Contests. After any two schools 
shall have been paired, the principals of the tw T o schools shall, at 
their earliest convenience, agree which school is to entertain. The 
principal representing the visiting team shall immediately submit to 
the principal of the entertaining school a list of ten names of people 
whom he recommends as judges. The principal, who is to entertain 
shall, within three days after receiving the list, if he accepts any of 
the names, arrange the names accepted, in the order of his choice, 
and send them to the principal of the visiting school. If the prin- 
cipal who is to entertain does not accept as many as six names he 
shall, in turn, at the time he sends the names that he accepts, submit 
a new list of ten names to the principal of the visiting school, who 
shall, if he accepts any of them, arrange the accepted names, in the 
order of his choice, as additional names to those already agreed upon. 



This shall be kept up until six names shall have been selected; three 
for judges and three for alternates. 

(b) Final Contest. Immediately after the two inter-district 
championships shall have been won, the committee representing the 
University shall submit to each of the principals of the two schools, 
a list of thirty names. Each principal shall be allowed to cross out 
as many as ten names, and shall, within three days, return the list to 
the committee. The committee shall then select from the names re- 
maining on the list, three to serve as judges in the contest for the cup. 
The remaining names shall be alternates. 

Section 3. Instructions — 

(a) During the debate the judges shall sit apart from one 
another. 

(b) They shall base their decision on the merits of the debate, 
not on the merits of the question; and shall mark the merits of the 
debate on the following basis: Argument, 70 per cent; team-work, 
20 per cent; delivery, 10 per cent. 

(c) Each judge, at the conclusion of the contest, without con- 
sultation with any other judge, shall write on a card the word 
"affirmative" or "negative," seal it in an envelope, and deliver it to 
the presiding afficer, who shall open the envelope in sight of the two 
leaders and then announce to the audience the decision. 

ARTICLE VIII. MEETINGS AND ELECTIONS. 

Section 1. The directors in the several districts shall, at any time 
they deem necessary, call meetings of the principals (or other repre- 
sentatives) of the league high schools in their respective districts. 

Section 2. The annual meeting shall be held at the university 
at the time of the inter-scholastic meet. At this meeting the presi- 
dent and directors shall be elected, each for a period of one year. 
Each league high school shall be entitled to only one vote. In the 
election of the directors each school shall vote for only one director — 
a director for its own district. In case no director for any particular 
district should be elected at this meeting, the president shall appoint 
one. 

ARTICLE IX. EXPENSES. 

Section 1. At the district and inter-district contests the enter- 
taining high school shall pay — 

(a) The expenses of the judges. 

(b) The hotel bills and railway mileage of the visiting teams 
(the three debaters), and one other person (chaperone or coach). 

If, however, the two teams taking part in the contest, should find 
it more convenient or less expensive to meet at some half-way point, 
the two schools which are represented by these teams shall share pro- 
portionally the expense, or make some special arrangements for de- 
fraying the expenses for that particular debate. 



—8— 

Section 2. At the final contest the university shall pay — 

(a) The expenses of the judges. 

(b) The hotel bills of the two teams. 

(c) The railway mileage of the two teams; provided that a suf- 
ficient amount of the entertainment fund of the final contest should 
remain after paying the expenses of the entertainment, and the inci- 
dental expenses incurred by the president during the year. 

ARTICLE X. PRIZES. 

1. The University of Montana gives a souvenir cup to the high 
school whose team wins at the final contest. The high school win- 
ning the cup shall hold it until the time set for the next regular final 
contest, at which time the cup shall be returned to the university, so 
that it can be given to the high school that next wins the state cham- 
pionship. Any school winning the cup three times, or twice in suc- 
cession, shall become the permanent owner of it. 

2. Senator Joseph M. Dixon gives annually, a gold medal to the 
best debator at the final contest. 

3. Judge Hiram Knowles will give, for the year 1909-10, a set 
of books to each of the three debaters of the winning team at the final 
contest. 

4. H. T. Wilkinson will give a set of books to each of the three 
debaters of the winning team at the special final contest (the contest 
for honorable mention). 

5. William H. Houston will give a free scholarship (including 
matriculation and athletic fees and course deposits) in the University 
of Montana to the student who wins the Dixon medal for the year 
1909-1910. This scholarship will be given when the student enrolls 
in the University. 

6.- Senator Thomas H. Carter gives annually, a gold medal for 
the best essay written by any member of the graduating classes of 
the accredited state high schools. 

7. E. C. Mulroney will give a scholarship (including matricula- 
tion and athletic fees and course deposits) in the University of Mon- 
tana for the year 1910, to the student who wins the Carter essay medal 
for the year 1909. 

8. John M. Keith will give annually a scholarship in the Uni- 
versity of Montana, amounting to fifty dollars, to one of the high 
school debaters, who will be chosen by the president of the university, 
from the twelve members of the four district champion teams of the 
high school debating league. The income of the scholarship will be 
paid to the student for one year, in two installments: one at the 
beginning of the first semester; the other, at the beginning of the 
second semester of the first year of his or her enrollment in the 
university. 

Applications for the scholarship must be made to the president 
of the university at the earliest practicable date before June 1 of 



— 9— 

each year. Each application should be accompanied by credentials 
showing the amount and quality of high school work done by the 
student, and by recommendations showing applicant's promise of 
future usefulness. Only members of the graduating classes will be 
eligible. 

ARTICLE VI. AMENDMENTS. 

This constitution and by-laws may be amended at any annual 
meeting by a majority of the league high schools present. But no 
school shall have more than one vote. 

1. Before the publication of the bulletin it shall be the duty 
of the directors to co-operate with the president in selecting a ques- 
tion for debate which shall be used at the inter-district contests and 
at the final contest for the ensuing year. The question, together with 
references and other suggestions that may be offerd by the president, 
shall be printed in the bulletin. 

2. After any series of debates is concluded, the statement of the 
question for debate many be changed with the consent of all teams 
concerned. But the team desiring the change must restate the ques- 
tion and secure the consent of the other teams. 

3. It shall be considered dishonorable for one school to visit the 
debates of another school when these two schools are likely to meet 
on the same question. 

4. It shall be considered dishonorable for any debater, in any 
manner to plagiarize his speech. 

5. It shall be considered dishonorable for any teacher or prin- 
cipal to assist debaters in any way except to direct them in the search 
for material and to train them in effective delivery. 



*& 



-10- 



QUESTION FOR DEBATE 



Resolved, That United States senators should be elected by 
the direct vote of the people. (Discussion of the constitutionality of 
the question is to be waived in all the debates). 

REFERENCES 

[Condensed from Univers'ty of Wisconsin Bulletin, Serial No. 257: 
General Series No. 139, November, 1908, with additions and corrections by 
the Librarian of the University of Montana.] 

Thirty-one states have passed resolutions requesting the calling of a 
constitutional convention to consider an amendment providing for popu- 
lar election of senators. Montana took such action in 1907. See Montana 
laws passed at the tenth regular session; Senate joint resolution No. 1. 
Haynes, George H., The Election of Senators: (300 pages) Holt & Co, 

N. Y. _ $1.50 

Ringwalt, R. C, Briefs on Public Questions: Longmans, Green & Co., 

N. Y $1.25 

Griffin, A. P. C, Complete List of References on the Popular Election 

of Senators: (39 pages) obtained free on application to the Library 

of Congress, Washington, D. C. 
These books contain lists of references, arguments, etc. 

In December, 1906, a convention including delegates from twelve states 
was held at Des Moines, Iowa, to discuss this question; reports of the 
debates may be found in the files of the principal newspapers of that month. 



Allen, Philip L., "Trend Toward a Pure Democracy." Outlook, vol. 84, 

pp. 120-122, Sept. 15, 1906. 
Bishop, George R., "Mode of Electing United States Senators." Forum, vol. 

42, pp. 142-147, Aug. 1909. 
Burgess, J. W., "Methods of Choosing Senators in Different Countries." 

Political Science Quarterly, vol. 19, p. 554, Dec. 1904. 
Chandler, Wm. E., "Election of Senators by Direct Vote." Independent, vol. 

52, p. 1292, May 31, 1900. 

"Direct Election of Senators." Independent, vol. 61, pp. 463-464, Aug. 23, 

1906, and vol. 64, pp. 1311-1312, June 4, 1908. 
"Direct Primaries, East and West." Review of Reviews, vol. 38, p. 399, 

Oct. 1908. 
"Direct Primaries in New Jersey. " Outlook, vol. 85, p. 101, Jan. 19, 1907. 
"Direct Vote for Senators." Outlook, vol. 82, pp. 819-820, April, 14. 1906. 
"Election of Senators by the State Legislatures, a Proven Failure." Out- 
look, vol. 86, pp. 17-19, May, 4, 1907. 
Edmunds. George F., "Should Senators be Elected by the People?" Forum, 

vol. 18, pp. 270-278, Nov., 1894. 
Fulton, C. W., "People as Legislators in Oregon." North American Review, 

vol. 185, pp. 70-72, May 3, 1908. 
"Going Back to the People." Independent, vol. 66, pp. 382-383, Feb, 18, 1909. 
Haynes, Geo. H., "Popular Control of Senatorial Elections." Political Science 

Quarterly, vol. 20, pp. 577-593, Dec. 1905. 
"Higher Standards for the Senate." Review of Reviews, vol. 37, p. 138, 

Feb.. 1909. 



—11— 

Hoar, Geo. Frishie, '"Election of Senators by Direct Vote of the People." 

Speeches, April, 3, 6, 7, 1893; Congressional Record, vol. 25, pt. 1, pp. 

67, 97, 101, 110. 
McColloch, C. H., "People's rule in Oregon." Arena, vol. 41, pp 461-6, 

July, 1909. 
Maxey, E,, "Election of United States Senators." Arena, vol. 40, pp. 428-31, 

Nov. 1908. 
Meredith, Ellis, "Senatorial Election in Colorado." Arena, vol, 38, pp. 353- 

360, Oct., 1907. 
Moorhead, F. G., "Remaking the Senate." World Today, vol. 12, pp. 178- 

181, Feb., 1907. 
"Movement for Election by Popular Vote." Forum, vol. 37, pp. 158-162, 

Oct., 1905. 
Mulkey, F. W., "Electing United States Senators." Independent, vol. 63, 

pp. 847-851, Oct. 10, 1907. 
"Needed: A Reform of the Senate." Review of Reviews, vol. 31, p. 264, 

March, 1905. 
"New Way of Choosing United States Senators in Oregon." Review of 

Reviews, vol. 34, pp. 174-175, Aug., 1906. 
"Nominations at Primary Elections." Harper's Weekly, vol. 50, p. 289 

March, 3, 1906. 
O'Neil, E., "Election of United States Senators by the People." North Am 

erica Review, vol. 188, pp. 700-715, Nov., 1908. 
"Our American Oligarchy." Cosmopolitan, vol. 42, pp. 549-550, March, 1907 
"Popular Election of Senators." World's Works, vol. 13, pp. 8489-8490 

Feb., 1907. 
Paine, Robert T., Jr., "Popular Senatorial Elections." Outlook, vol. 79, p 

911, April, 8, 1905. 
"Popular Election of Senators." Review of Reviews, vol. 27, p. 400, April 

1903. 
"Popularization of the Senate."' Chautauquan, vol. 54, p. 168, April, 1909. 
Reeves, R. N., "Decline of the State." Arena, vol. 34, p. 161, Aug., 1905. 
"Responsible Government." Outlook, vol. 87, pp. 363-4, June, 20, 1908. 
Senator Root on Direct Elections. Independent, vol. 66, pp. 267-8, Feb. 4, 1909. 
"Shall Millionaires Run the Government?" Review of Reviews, vol. 35, p. 

340, March, 1907. 
Thatcher, G. A., "Oregon Election.'' Independent, vol. 64, p. 1446, Jan. 

25, 1908. 
Thatcher, G. A., "Significance of the Oregon Experiment." Outlook, vol. 

83. pp. 612-614, July 14, 1906. 
Wingate, O. B., "The United States Senate." An address at Milwaukee, 

Wisconsin. 
"Why the Senate Is What It Is." World's Work, vol. 11, pp. 7029-7030, 

Jan., 1906. 



12— 



DISTRICT CONTESTS 



In order that the students who are defeated in the first series of debates 
may have an opportunity to practice debating, the following scheme for pair- 
ing teams may be used. 



Contests for the Cup and Other 
Prizes. 



Contests for Honorable Mention. 



FIRST SERIES, BETWEEN OCT. 1 AND DEC. 1. 



(1) A high school vs. B high school 

(2) C high school vs. D high school 

(3) E high school vs. F high school 

(4) G high school vs. H high school 

SECOND SERIES, BETWEEN OCT. 1 AND JAN. 1. 



(5) winner in (1) vs. winner in (2) 

(6) winner in (3) vs. winner in (4) 



(5*) loser in (1) vs. loser in (2) 
(6*) loser in (3) vs. loser in (4) 



THIRD SERIES, BETWEEN JAN. 1 AND FEB. 1. 



(7) winner in (5) vs. winner in (6) 



The winner in (7) shall be the 
regular district champion team, and 
shall be entitled to be pitted against 
one of the other regular district 
champion teams, in the regular in- 
ter-district contests, and if succes- 
ful in the inter-district contest, 
shall be entitled to take part in 
the regular final contest at Mis- 
soula. 



(7*) winner in (5*) vs. winner in 

(6*) 
(8*) loser in (5) vs. loser in (6) 

BETWEEN FEB. 1 AND MCH. 1. 



(9*) winner in (7*) vs. winner in 

(8*). 

The winner in (9*) shall be the 
district champion team of honor- 
able memtion, and shall be entitled 
to be pitted against a similar team 
in one of the other districts, and 
if successful, shall be entitled to 
take part in a special final contest, 
to be held at Missoula or at any 
other place agreed upon by the 
president of the league and the 
principals of the two schools repre- 
sented in the special contest. 



|j In the second series, winner in (1) may, at the discretion of the di- 
rector, be pitted against winner in (3) or winner in (4); and loser in (1) 
against loser in (3) or loser in (4) — whichever happens to be the most 
convenient for the schools concerned — the matter to be decided by the 
director as soon as possible after the first series of contests. Similar 
changes may be made by the director for the district contests that come 
after the second series. In following this plan some schools will neces- 
sarily have to be declared winners by default. 



—13- 



RESULTS OF THE DEBATES IN 






1908-1909 








EASTERN DISTRICT. 




Forsyth 


(neg.) 


won over Miles City (aff.) Dec. 1. 




Forsyth 


(neg.) 


won over Billings (aff.) Feb. 13. 






Forsyth the champion for the Eastern 


District. 






NORTHERN DISTRICT. 




Helena 


(neg.) 


won over Kalispell (aff.) Feb. 5. 




Helena 


(aff.) won over Townsend (neg.) March 


12 




Helena the champion for the Northern 


District. 






SOUTHERN DISTRICT. 




Bczeman (aff.) 


won over Livingston (neg.) Dec. 


19. 


Butte (neg.) won over Bozeman (aff.) Jan. 29. 






Butte 


the champion for the Southern 
WESTERN DISTRICT. 


District. 


Boulder 


(neg.) 


won over Missoula (aft.) Jan. 15. 




Boulder 


(neg.) 


won over Philipsburg (aff.) Feb. 


13. 




Boulder the champion for the Western 


District. 






INTER-DISTRICT CONTESTS 




Forsyth 


(neg.) 


won over Helena (aff.) April 9. 




Boulder 


(aff.) 


won over Butte (neg.) April 12. 
FINAL CONTEST. 




Forsyth 


(neg.) 


won over Boulder (aft.) May 11. 





14- 



ESSAY MEDAL FOR 1909-1910 



WW 



TO THE CONTESTANTS. 

Mountain scenery has, during the last century, appealed deeply to 
English writers. Scott, Wordsworth, Byron, Browning, Coleridge, and 
Ruskin, besides other less prominent writers, have treated appreciatively 
of it. What are the characteristics of mountans which have appealed to 
any or all of these men? How far do these characteristics appear in the 
mountain scenery about your home; what characteristics has it which the 
English writers, in their different surroundings, have not observed? The 
answers to these questions are to furnish the subject matter for the essays 
of 1909-1910. 

In preparing for this contest, read as widely and sympathetically as 
you can the works in which mountains are described and interpreted. 
Choose one or more of the above authors — it makes little difference how 
many; get their point of view; see through their eyes. Then, using your 
own eyes, look at the scenery about you, and write your essay as simply 
and sincerely and individually as you can. This somewhat new kind of 
subject has been selected to give you a chance to show what you can get 
from certain great works of literature, and what you can observe for yourself. 

Ruskin, because of "Modern Painters," has been named with the poets 
who have written of mountain scenery. Other poets besides those named 
may also be included in your study. A list of the poems used as a basis 
for your work should be submitted with your essay. 

You may select a title suitable to your individual composition. 



<£ 



—15— 

PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1908-1909 



WALTER SCOTT 



By ELINOR PETERSON. 

The history of the literature of the world is a record of great move- 
ments of intellect when the human mind, fired by imagination, has brought 
forth new worlds of thought. These creative periods are huge waves 
rising from the vast sea of thought and are ruled by the strong, under- 
lying, current of life. They are waves that are continually forming, con- 
tinually rolling upward, sweeping away all trivial thoughts as driftwood is 
swept away, then sinking again to the surface to wait the next emotional 
current that shall hurl them aloft to the very clouds. Several such waves 
have shaken the depths of intellect, each has risen to its highest point 
and has fallen to make way for the next. Chaucer, one of the first of 
England's great poets, appeared on one of these waves, carrying with him 
the new ideas of poetry and deeper thoughts which he had embodied in 
his famous "Canterbury Tales." Then occurred the great movement which 
carried the drama to the highest point it has ever attained and foremost 
upon it came Shakespeare with his disregard for all narrow 
and pedantic rules. And, after that, arose the great age of romanticism. 
Thus, it is not surprising to find that, when England was filled either with 
hostile tribes or with the fear that they would come, her bards should sing 
songs pertaining to war and in their patriotism eulogize the powers of 
their beloved country. It was not unnatural that the discovery of the 
New World and the expansion of the Old, should excite their minds and 
rouse them from the lethargy into which they had fallen. 

Neither was it any more strange, that, when the excitement was passed, 
the reaction should set in with the change caused by the rising power of 
the Puritans and that the different conditions should produce a different 
spirit. The Puritans viewed the Elizabethan drama with such stern dis- 
approval that all advancement in that direction was, for a time, effectually 
checked. The next form of literature was the classical treatise which 
dealt with subjects difficult to understand and which only the well-educated 
people cared to read. Manner of expression was of far greater importance 
than subject matter, and a well known idea set forth in new classical terms 
was often more acceptable than an original thought expressed in un- 
familiar phrases. The precise rules, which attempted to confine literature 
to a certain narrow path, were not conducive to the development of the 
intellect and yet these very restrictions were preparing the way for a 
broader and brighter movement. The studied form and polished elegance 
of the classical writers were destined to give way to the happier age which 
marked the approach of the romance. 

The romance was a new form of writing which differed from all pre- 
vious literature It marked the striving of the soul for something better 
than is ordinarily found in this world and broadened human sympathy by 
its expressions of deep feeling. The romance may be said to have first 
appeared in Spencer's poetry since he was the first author to create purely 
imaginative characters and scenes. Shakespeare's works, also, Intimated 
the advent of romanticism in that tbey departed from the fixed rules of 
the Greek drama, which was then taken as a model. But, undoubtedly, 
it may be said to have attained its highest point during the ase in which 
Scott lived 

He appeared foremost on an emotional wave that was destined to 



—16— 

tear down the formal barriers which had so long restrained the spirit 3f 
literature. His works, both poetry and prose, were influenced by the 
movements toward exploration and expansion. His poems are filled with 
war and adventure, yet ever manifest a strong, deep, almost reverent ap- 
preciation of the wonders and beauties of nature. The descriptions of 
nature found in them are not the vividly colored creation drawn by a novice, 
but the productions from the hand of one who loved and sought for natural 
beauties. His poetical works are strongly marks ,1, throughout, by his 
impulsive spirjit, yet their material air is often set aside to make room 
for softer moods. As, for instance, in his "Lady of the Lake." In this 
poems, filled, as it is, with the clashing of arms, we can almost hear the 
mysterious music of the invisble harp: now sweet and tender and now 
ringing, clear and loud, with all the intense fervor of patriotism. And, in 
"Marmion," he takes us, at dawn, to the top of the mountain, and, with the 
hero, we look down upon a mighty city fitted out with all the grim 
preparations for war, but our glances are not allowed to rest there. They 
are led beyond the city and we see 

"All the steep slope down, 

Whose ridg,y back heaves to the sky, 

Piled deep and massy, close and high." 
Scott's poems were read by all classes and the one objection to them, 
namely, that they were not classical, was lost sight of in the delight with 
which they were received: an approval which has only been equaled by 
that accorded to his prose works. 

The style of his novels differed from that of his contemporaries In 
that he had an ingenious manner of telling his tales which held the at- 
tention of his readers as closely as if they were listening to an actual 
conversation. He seems rather to have followed the promptings of his 
fancy than any prescribed rules, and, at his will, one is led from the wild 
grandeur of his beloved mountains to the grave dignity of great cities, from 
the scenes of a battlefield to the simple home life of the Lowland peasants. 
Indeed, his methods of writings are best described by himself in his lines, 

"Though wild as cloud, as stream, as gale, 
Flow forth, flow unrestrained my tale." 

His works are, also, distinguished by his careful treatment of his characters. 

As a rule, his depiction of human nature is good. He never attempted 
to describe a type of character that he did not fully understand. His best 
characters are those which he has presented to us by means of a few, sug- 
gestive phrases, but, in general, his character descriptions are long and* 
employ so much detail that very little is left to the imagination. But, 
never the less, some of his characters are good. Take, for example, the 
miserly Jew, in "Ivanhoe," bending over the fire to warm his thin, claw- 
like hands. Told in a few, well-chosen words, simply, directly, yet no 
word-picture could be more complete. Or Dominie Sampson, in "Guy Man- 
nering." In all fictions history, there is not another like him: a silent 
man who has no duty aside from loyalty to his dearest friends and whoso 
heartfelt joy in the restoration of the rightful heir, Henry Bertram, to 
Ellangowan, is almost pathetic in its earnest simplicity. But one of Scott's 
masterpieces is found in his descriptions of Meg Merrilies, the gipsy. Her 
nature was as wild and untamed as the mountain breezes she delighted in. 
and as steadfast and true to those whom she loved as the mountains about 
which they played. A nature in which the stern and the tender were 
strangely mixed and which was as hard to understand as the strange at- 
tractions which the majestic beauties of nature hold for mankind We are 
veritably carried away from ourselves when we read her passionate fare- 
well to her old home. 

But greatly as Scott's character's are famed, it is not that point, alone, 



—17— 

which makes his works so attractive. The greater part of the writers 
of his day were merely imitators, who were quite content to follow the 
example set by previous writers. Not so with Scott. He broke away 
from all conventionalities and startled the older authors by writing books 
filled with living characters and human thoughts, books, which gave a new 
impetus to literature by introducing a new form of writing and, more than 
that, refreshed the minds of the people by instilling into them the 
wondrous freedom of the hills. His works breathe forth a spirit of 
adventure and keen delight in unusual situations. People liked his works 
then because they could understand them and because the very romantic 
element which the classical school abhorred, appealed to them. People 
like his works today for the same reason and will continue to like them 
a hundred years from now, for human traits and instincts change very 
slowly and the likes and dislikes of today are much the same as those 
experience a hundred years ago, or those of a century hence. And, though 
science and art may make marvelous progress, we must admit with Scott 
that "still the heart must have a language." 

This sympathetic knowledge of human emotions caused Scott to be 
universally loved and to become one of Scotland's favorite poets. He was 
a naturally warm-hearted man who might have been termed a genius in 
respect to his readiness in understanding the people with whom he came 
in contact. His strong sense of justice won many friends for him, for it 
would be hard to find another man equally honorable in his dealings with 
all mankind. A striking example of his honesty is found in his tremendous 
struggle to pay his debths. Other men in his financial condition would have 
taken advantage of the bankrupt laws to have escaped their obligations, 
but he immediately commenced the task of clearing his name. Physically 
unable, he exerted himself beyond his abilities, writing at times when he 
could scarcely hold a pen. The debt was neven entirely paid, but the 
example he set taught the world many a lesson. Then, too, his strong 
sense of justice went far in brightening the way for all whom he met, for no 
situation was too trying to be lightened by his happy fancy and no diffi- 
culties were ever too intricate to be solved by his winsome frankness. 
Indeed, he might well claim a close kinship with all the world since to 
meet him was to become his friend. All of which traits are, in a large 
measure due to the influence exerted over him by the conditions of his 
early life. 

Walter Scott was born in Edinburgh, 1771, but on account of a lame- 
ness, which resulted friom a fever contracted in his infancy, was taken to 
the country in the hopes that the mountain air might rid him of this 
affliction. He was kept outdoors the greater part of the time and thus, 
unconsciously, the love of nature, which was to take so prominent a place 
in his life, was early developed and was encouraged by daily contact with 
all its rare beauties. Later, he entered Edinburgh High School where he 
made rapid puogress. He was very quick-witted, but, as he, himself, said, 
he "made a brighter figure in the yards than in the class." For, though 
his lameness prevented his partaking to any extent in athletic games, his 
renins for telling stories caused him to become very popular among his 
comrades. When he entered the University of Edinburgh, he fell behind his 
class and could never be persuaded to take up Greek with a lower class. 
In all other studies he advanced rapidly, excelling in those which permitted 
him to indulge in his love of war and adventure. To please his father, 
he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1792. But no occupation, 
taken up for this reason alone, could ever prove anything but distasteful, 
and he soon abandoned this course for one more congenial, though not 
before he had had time to make several journeys among the Highlands. 
This traveling gave him an opportunity to study carefully the -different classes 
of people and to learn to respect alike the haughty vindictiveness of the 
Highland chieftains and the artless pleasures of their Lowland brothers. 



IS- - 

This close observation of the different spirits bred in the different 
sections of the country tended toward drawing him into the closest sympathy 
with them. His sympathy, in turn, led to an intelligent appreciation of 
the causes of their emotions and presently he found himself entering, he^rt 
and soul, into every mood of theirs. This regard of fellowmen was merely 
an extension of his instinctive love of nature: a love which was intensified 
by the knowledge that all those wondrously rare beauties belonged to his 
own country. His liking for the humble heather-bell found expression in 
a description of sunrise, where, 

"On Ochil mountains fell the rays, 
And as each purple top they kissed, 
It gleamed a purple amethyst." 

He also had a strong attachment for the bleak hills around his home and 
deemed as fitting companions for his beloved Tweed those very "brown 
hills" which 

So closely bind, 
Scarce can the Tweed the passage find, 
Though much he fret, and chafe and toil, 

Till all his eddying currents boil." 

« 

And his close association with them lit them up with a tender grace not 
visible to strange eyes. The picturesque mountains of Scotland appealed 
to his romantic nature and we can trace the effect of their silent eloquence 
upon him through his works. He loved every "naked crag" and every 
nook of native country. The ruins of old castles suggested to his fanciful 
imagination many a tale of love and adventure which found expression in 
books like "Waverly" and "Guy Mannering." His ardent patriotism was 
displayed in his writings where ever an opportunity presented itself, but 
perhaps nowhere more earnestly than in "The Lay of the Last Minstrel" 
where he exclaims, 

"Breathes there a man with soul so dead, 

Who never to himself hath said, 

'This is my own, my native land.' 

Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned, 

As home his footsteps he hath turned, 

From wandering on a foreign strand. 

His enthusistic loyalty to his country has never been surpassed, but 
it was not his patriotism alone that w r on for him so much fame and esteem. 
It was only natural that a character like Scott, a man refined by sorrow 
and suffering, who could still smile through adversity, should be loved. Life 
was always a serious problem with him, yet he continually sought for and 
alv/ays found the bright part of the overhanging clouds and, though the 
gleam of sunshine were ever so small, the prospect of a bettor day was 
sufficient to bring contentment to him. For Walter Scotl was truly great 
Not only great in renown, but great in that constant purity, so aptly 
described by Milton, which 

"Casts a beam On the outward shape, 
And turns it by degrees to the souls essence, 
Till all be made immortal." 

And though history records many authors who have produced masterpieces, 
though the comiDg ages will continue to bring forth their talented writers, 
still, Walter Scott will ever be respected just as much for the pure life 
he led as he will be admired for the books he wrote. And when that great 
man did, finally, 



—19— 

"Glide down to the sea, 
Of fathomless eternity" 

amidst the peaceful scenes of his home, surrounded by his beloved hills 
and close to the noise of the friendly Tweed, the woild mourned him in 
unison. And there was just cause, for it had lost a beautiful character, 
whose place could never be filled. 




—20- 



RULES GOVERNING THE ESSAY CONTEST. 

[Adopted at a meeting of high school principals, at Missoula, Dec. 27, '07.] 

Amended May 16, 1908. 

1. All members of the graduating classes of the accredited high schools 
in the State of Montana, shall be eligible to compete for the medal. 

2. The topic on which the essay shall be written, shall be selected by a 
committee of three consisting of the professor of English, the professor of 
literature, and the professor of history at the University. No essay shall 
exceed three thousand words. 

3. Each high school may hold a preliminary contest, about April 1, for 
the purpose of selecting the best essay. The contest may be in charge of 
one of the teachers of English. The principal, the teacher in charge, and 
the student who writes the essay shall sign a statement that the essay is 
not plagiarized. 

4 A type-written copy of the best essay in each preliminary contest, 
marked on the first page with some motto or pseudonym, shall, on or before 
April 15, be sent to the chairman of the committee at the University. The 
signed statement with regard to plagiarism shall be sent with the essay. All 
essays received by the committee shall be submitted to three judges, who 
shall be appointed by the president of the University. The judges, without 
knowing the names of the students who wrote the essays, or what schools are 
represented by them, shall rank and grade each essay, on the following 
basis: Logical development, 45 per cent; composition, 45 per cent; general 
impression, 10 per cent. The essay having the highest rank shall ge declared 
the winning essay. In case there should be a tie in the ranking, the one 
having the highest grade (per centage) shall be declared the winning essay. 

5. The name of the high school that wins the prize shall be announced 
at the time of the final school debate contest. 

6. The prize essay with the name of the writer shall be printed in the 
annual bulletin for 1909-10, of the high school debating league. 



[Amendment adopted by correspondence between the chairman of the com- 
mittee at the University and the principals of the high schools.] 

7 Students who finish their work at the end of the first semester of 
any year will be required to write their essays before the last day of the 
first semester. This special privilege is given, with the understanding that 
any principal who receives essays on these conditions will, under no circum- 
stances, allow any changes to be made in the essays after they have been 
submitted to him, but will keep them in his possession until the date sot 
for his preliminary contest (about April 1.). At this time he will select 
from all the essays submitted by his students (both the January and the 
June graduates) the best essay, which he will send to the University. 



21- 




^^y,/ 



ELINOR PETERSON. 



Member of the Graduating Class of the Red Lodge High School, June, 1909, 
Winner of the Carter Essay Medal. 



—22— 



FORSYTH HIGH SCHOOL 




NEWTON GILLILAND. 
MILDRED ECKELS. GENEVA MONTFORD. 



State High School Champion Debating Team for the Year 1908-1909. 



—23— 



BOULDER HIGH SCHOOL 






/ 



Ben Forbes. 



Agatha Wolter. 



Stella Tate. 



CHAMPION TEAM OF THE WESTERN DISTRICT 
for the year 1908-1909. 

Winner ot the Dixcn Medal, the State High School Champion Debater, 
for the year 1908-1909. 



v p ^ 




TIN UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA 
No.M 52 
OCTOBER, 1908 



&MV* 



^Mf^ 



Montana 
High School 
Debating League 



$Jr?aa of 
THE DAILY MISSOXJXIAN 

MISSOULA, MONTANA 



Montana High School 
Debating League 

UNIVERSITY OP ILLINOIS 

PRi SlDKNT3 OFF1CB. 



ANNOUNCEMENTS FOR THE YEAR 
1908-09 



Pbkpaeed Bt 

J. S. Snoddt 

Depabtment of English and Rdetobic 

University of Montana 
missoula 



OFFICERS 

FOR THE YEAR 1908-09 



J. S. SNODDY, Missoula 
President. 



m 

J. H. DOYLE, Columbus, 

Director, Eastern District. 



G. A. KETCHAM, Kalispell, 

Director, Northern District. 



E. J. PARKIN, Bozeman, 

Director, Southern District. 



B. E. TOAN, Boulder, 

Director, Western District. 



ACCREDITED STATE HIGH SCHOOLS 



EASTERN DISTRICT. 

SCHOOLS— PRINCIPALS— 

Billings J. A. Dallas 

Columbus J. H. Doyle 

Forsyth ...... Samuel See 

Glendive R. L. Hunt 

Miles City H. R. Wallis 

Red Lodge . . . . . L. D. Fallis 

NORTHERN DISTRICT. 

Chinook . . . . . . G. H. Willman 

Chouteau . . . . . W. W. Jones 

Fort Benton . . . . J. W. Lenning 

Great Falls . . . . P. C. Emmons 

Havre . . . . . . J. T. Troy 

Helena . . . . . A. J. Roberts 

Kalispell . . . . . . G. A. Ketcham 

Townsend . . . . J. M. Kay 

SOUTHERN DISTRICT. 

Big Timber . . . . W. C. Ryan 

Bozeman . . . . . . E. J. Parkin 

Butte . . . . . G. F. Downer 

Lewistown . . . . . P. M. Silloway 

Livingston ..... Lewis Terwilliger 

Virginia City F. R. McKenna 

WESTERN DISTRICT. 

Anaconda . . . . . . A. B. Hickson 

Boulder . . . . . B. E. Toan 

Deer Lodge ..... Guy Allen 

Dillon . . . . L. R. Foote 

Hamilton D. S. Williams 

Missoula . . . . . J. F. Thomas 

Philipsburg . . . . . G. T. Bramble 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

Adopted by the High School Principals and City Superintendents, at 
a Meeting at the University of Montana, May 1 7, 1 906 

Am.nded May 16, 1907, and May 14, 1908 



PREAMBLE. 

The object of this league is improvement in debate among the 
students in the high schools of the state of Montana. 

ARTICLE I. NAME. 

This organization shall be known as the Montana High School 
Debating League. 

ARTICLE II. DEBATING DISTRICTS. 

For convenience the state shall be divided into four debating dis- 
tricts, viz: 

Eastern District: Billings, Columbus, Forsyth, Glendive, Miles 
City, Red Lodge. 

Northern District: Chinook, Chouteau, Fort Benton, Great Falls, 
Havre, Helena, Kalispell, Townsend. 

Southern District: Big Timber, Bozeman, Butte, Lewistown, 
Livingston, Virginia City. 

Western District: Anaconda, Boulder, Deer Lodge, Dillon, Ham- 
ilton, Missoula, Philipsburg. 

ARTICLE III. MEMBERSHIP. 

Section 1. Any high school in Montana which has been accredited 
by the University of Montana may become a member of this league 
by applying to the president of the league, or to the director of the 
district in which the school is situated. 

Section 2. All schools seeking admission for any particular year 
must join at least ten days before the first contest in the first series 
in their respective districts. 

ARTICLE IV. CONTESTS. 

Section 1. District Contests. The district contests, held by teams 
representing the several high schools within each district, shall occur 
between the first of October and the first of February. The team 
winning in the last series of these contests shall be the district 
champion team. 



Section 2. Inter-District Contests. The inter-district contests, 
held by the several district champion teams, shall occur between the 
first of February and the first of April. The two teams winning in 
these contests shall be the two inter-district champion teams. 

Section 3. Final Contest. The final contest, held by the two 
inter-district champion teams, shall occur between the fifteenth of 
April and the date set for the interscholastic meet, at the University 
of Montana (or at some other place in Missoula, selected by the presi- 
dent of the league) . 

ARTICLE V. OFFICERS. 

Section 1. The officers of the league shall be a president and 
four district directors. 

Section 2. There shall be in each district one director, who shall 
be the principal (or other representative) of one of the league high 
schools in that district. 

It shall be the duty of the director — 

(a) To preside at the call meetings of the principals (or other 
representatives) of the league high schools in his district. 

(o) To co-operate with the principals (or other representatives) 
of the league high schools in his district, in pairing the schools, and 
in making other arrangements for the several series of district con- 
tests, on the basis of convenience and expense. If in any series of 
the district contests any two schools that are paired by the director 
should fail to agree upon sides within one week after the preceding 
series of contests, the director shall appoint some one to determine 
sides by casting lots. 

(c) To furnish the president all necessary information with 
regard to all the workings of the league within his district, and to 
report from time to time to the Inter-Mountain Educator any news 
items that may be of interest to the league. 

Section 3. The president shall be a member of the faculty of the 
University of Montana. 

It shall be the duty of the president — 

(a) To preside at the annual meeting, and at the final contest, 
and, when necessary, to call meetings of directors. 

(b) To co-operate with the principals of the four schools repre- 
sented by the district champion teams in pairing these teams, and in 
making other arrangements for the inter-district contests, on the basis 
of convenience and expense. If, in the pairing of these teams for the 
inter-district contests, the principals of any two schools should not 
agree upon sides within one week after their schools have been paired, 
the president shall appoint some one to determine sides by casting lots. 

(c) To co-operate with the principals of the two schools that are 
to be represented in the final contest in making arrangements for 
that contest. If the principals of these two schools should not agree 
upon sides within one week after the last inter-district contest the 
president shall appoint some one to determine sides by casting lots. 



(d) To prepare and have printed each year, before October 1st 
(at the expense of the university) a bulletin containing the latest 
revision of the constitution and by-laws, the names and addresses of 
the officers, the list of names of the high schools belonging to the 
league, and such other matter as, in his judgment, may be helpful to 
the members of the league. 

ARTICLE VI. THE DEBATERS. 

Section 1. The debaters shall be undergraduate students of the 
schools which they represent, and shall have passing grades to date 
in all subjects that they are taking at the time of the contest. 

Section 2. The team that shall represent any league high school 
shall be selected by that school in any manner agreed upon by the 
principal, teachers, and students of that school. 

Section 3. At all contests the debaters shall be separated from the 
audience and shall receive no coaching while the debate is in progress. 

Section 4. At all contests the time and order of the speeches shall 
be as follows : 

1st speaker, affirmative, 12 minutes (introduction and direct argument). 

1st speaker, negative, 12 minutes (direct arugment and refutation). 

2nd speaker, affirmative, 12 minutes (direct argument and refutation). 

2nd speaker, negative, 12 minutes (direct argument and refutation). 

3d speaker, affirmative, 12 minutes (direct argument and refutation). 

1st speaker, negative (or one of his colleagues), 5 min. (rebuttal and sum- 
mary). 

1st speaker, affirmative (or one of his colleagues), 5 min. (rebuttal and sum* 
mary). 
No new argument allowed in either of the last two speeches. 

ARTICLE VII. THE JUDGES. 

Section 1. At each contest there shall be three judges, who shall 
be selected on the basis of capability and impartiality. 

Section 2. Selection of judges — 

(a) District and Inter-District Contests. After any two schools 
shall have been paired, the principals of the two schools shall, at their 
earliest convenience, agree which school is to entertain. The prin- 
cipal representing the visiting team shall immediately submit to the 
principal of the entertaining school a list of ten names of people 
whom he recommends as judges. The principal, who is to entertain, 
shall, within three days after receiving the list, if he accepts any of 
the names, arrange the names accepted, in the order of his choice, 
and send them to the principal of the visiting school. If the prin- 
cipal who is to entertain does not accept as many as six names he 
shall, in turn, at the time he sends the names that he accepts, submit 
a new list of ten names to the principal of the visiting school, who 
shall, if he accepts any of them, arrange the accepted names, in the 
order of his choice, as additional names to those already agreed upon. 
This shall be kept up until six names shall have been selected; three 
for judges and three for alternates. 



— 7— 

(b) Final Contest. Immediately after the two inter-district 
championships shall have been won, the committee representing the 
University shall submit to each of the principals of the two schools, a 
list of thirty names. Each principal shall be allowed to cross out as 
many as ten names, and shall, within three days, return the list to the 
committee. The committee shall then select from the names remain- 
ing on the list, three to serve as judges in the contest for the cup. 
The remaining names shall be alternates. 

Section 3. Instructions — 

(a) During the debate the judges shall sit apart from one 
another. 

(b) They shall base their decision on the merits of the debate, 
not on the merits of the question; and shall mark the merits of the 
debate on the following basis: Argument, 70 per cent; team-work, 
20 per cent; delivery, 10 per cent. 

(c) Each judge at the conclusion of the contest, without con- 
sultation with any other judge, shall write on a card the word 
"affirmative" or "negative," seal it in an envelope, and deliver it to 
the presiding officer, who shall open the envelope in sight of the two 
leaders and then announce to the audience the decision. 

ARTICLE VIII. MEETINGS AND ELECTIONS. 

Section 1. The directors in the several districts shall, at any time 
they deem it necessary, call meetings of the principals (or other repre- 
sentatives) of the league high schools in their respective districts. 

Section 2. The annual meeting shall be held at the university 
at the time of the inter-scholastic meet. At this meeting the presi- 
dent and directors shall be elected, each for a period of one year. 
Each league high school shall be entitled to only one vote. In the 
election of the president each league high school may vote ; but in the 
election of the directors each school shall vote for only one director — 
a director for its own district. In case no director for any particular 
district should be elected at this meeting, the president shall 
appoint one. 

ARTICLE IX. EXPENSES. 

Section 1. At the district and inter-district contests the enter- 
taining high school shall pay — 

(a) The expenses of the judges. 

(b) The hotel bills and railway mileage of the visiting teams 
(the three debaters) . 

If, however, the two teams taking part in the contest, should find 
it more convenient or less expensive to meet at some half-way point, 
the two schools which are represented by these teams shall share pro- 
portionally the expense, or make some special arrangements for 
defraying the expenses for that particular debate. 



Section 2. At the final contest, the university shall pay — 

(a) The expenses of the judges. 

(b) The hotel bills of the two teams. 

(c) The railway mileage of the two teams ; provided that a suf- 
ficient amount of the entertainment fund of the final contest should 
remain after paying the expenses of the entertainment, and the inci- 
dental expenses incurred by the president during the year. 

ARTICLE X. PRIZES. 

1. The University of Montana gives a souvenir cup to the high 
school whose team wins at the final contest. The high school win- 
ning the cup shall hold it until the time set for the next regular final 
contest, at which time the cup shall be returned to the university, so 
that it can be given to the high school that next wins the state cham- 
pionship. Any school winning the cup three times, or twice in suc- 
cession, shall become the permanent owner of it. 

2. Senator Joseph M. Dixon gives annually, a gold medal to the 
best debater at the final contest. 

3. Judge Hiram Knowles will give, for the year 1908-1909, a 
set of books to each of the three debaters of the winning team at the 
final contest. 

ARTICLE XI. AMENDMENTS. 

This constitution and by-laws may be amended at any annual 
meeting by a majority of the league high schools present. But no 
school shall have more than one vote. 



BY-LAWS 

1. Before the publication of the bulletin it shall be the duty of 
the directors to co-operate with the president in selecting a question 
for debate which shall be used at the inter-district contests and at the 
final contest for the ensuing year. The question, together with refer- 
ences and other suggestions that may be offered by the president, 
shall be printed in the bulletin. 

2. After any series of debates is concluded, the statement of the 
question for debate may be changed with the consent of all teams con- 
cerned. But the team desiring the change must restate the question 
and secure the consent of the other teams. 

3. It shall be considered dishonorable for one school to visit the 
debates of another school when these two schools are likely to meet 
on the same question. 

4. It shall be considered dishonorable for any debater, in any 
manner, to plagiarize his speech. 

5. It shall be considered dishonorable for any teacher or prin- 
cipal to assist debaters in any way except to direct them in the search 
for material and to train them in effective delivery. 



QUESTION FOR DEBATE 

FOR THE TEAR 1908-09 

Resolved, That the United States should maintain an offensive as 
well as a defensive navy. 



[Note. — The point at issue in this question is tersely expressed by Mr. 
"Victor H. Metcalf, Secretary of the Navy, in a letter to the president of the 
high school debating league, dated September 18, 1908. The point at issue he 
says, is: "Shall the United States build and maintain an offensive-defensive 
navy, or shall a defensive navy only be provided for?"] 

Our two greater American political parties, at the present time, practically 
concede that we should maintain a defensive navy. 



Extract from the republican platform, adopted at Chicago, June 18, 1908: 

THE ARMY AND NAVY. 

The Sixtieth congress passed many commendable acts increasing the 
efficiency of the army and navy; making the militia of the states an integral 
part of the national question; joint maneuvers of army and militia; fortifying 
new naval bases and completing the construction of coaling stations; institut- 
ing a nurse corps for naval hospitals and ships and recommending two new 
battleships, ten torpedo boat destroyers, three steam colliers and eight sub- 
marines to the strength of the navy. Although at peace with the world and 
secure in the consciousness that the American people do not desire and will 
not provoke a war with any country, we nevertheless declare our unalterable 
devotion to a policy that will keep this republic ready at all times to defend 
her traditional doctrines and assure her appropriate part in protecting per- 
manent tranquility among the nations. 



Extract from the democratic platform, adopted at Denver, July 9, 1908: 

THE NAVY. 

"The constitutional provision that a navy shall be provided and maintained 
means an adequate navy, and we believe that the interests of this country 
would be best served by having a navy sufficient to defend the coasts of this 
country and protect American citizens wherever their rights may be in 
jeopardy." 



-10— 



REFERENCES 



BOOKS ON THE NAVY. 

Beyer, T., American Battleship and Life in the Navy: (1908) Laird & 

Lee, Chicago $1.25 

Beyer, T., American Battleship in Commission: (1908) Army & Navy 

Reg $1.50 

Evans, H. A., Trade Follows the Flag: (1908) U. S. Supt. of Documents.... 15 cts. 

Freemantle, Sir E. R., Navy as I Have Known It: (1904 and 1908) Cas- 

sell & Co., N. Y $5.00 

Hoff, A. B., Battleship's Order Book: (1908) U. S. Naval Institute, 

Anapolis $1.00 

Jane, Fred T., All the World's Fighting Ships: (1901) Harper Bros., 

N. Y $5.00 

Jane, Fred T., Heresies of Sea Power: (1907) Longmans, Green & Co., 

N. Y $4.00 

Long, J. D., New American Navy: (1903) 2 vols. The Macmillan Co., 

N. Y $5.00 

Maclay, E. S., Hist, of the U. S. Navy from 1775 to 1901: (enlg. ed. 1901, 

3 vols.) D. Appleton & Co., N. Y $9.00 

McLean, R., The Bluejacket's Manual of U. S. Navy: (enlg. ed. 1903) U. 

S. Naval Institute, Anapolis $1.25 

Mahan, A. T., Interest of Amer. in Sea Power: (1899) Little, Brown & 

Co., Boston $2.00 

Mahan, A. T., Lessons of War with Spain: (1899) Little, Brown & Co., 

Boston , $2.00 

Mahan, A. T., Problem of Asia and Its Effects upon International Policies: 

(1900) Little, Brown & Co., Boston $2.00 

Mahan, A. T., Types of Naval Affairs Drawn from the Hist, of the British 

Navy: (1901) Little, Brown & Co., Boston $2.50 

Mahan, A. T., Retrospect and Prospect: Studies in International Rela- 
tions: (1902) Little, Brown & Co., Boston $1.60 

Rawson, E. K., Twenty Famous Naval Battles: (2 vols.) Little, Brown 

& Co., Boston $4.00 

Roosevelt, T., Presidential Messages 1902-1904: [Introduction by H. C. 

Lodge] (1904) G. P. Putnam's Sons, N. Y. $1.25 

Schley, W. S., Forty-five Years under the Flag: (1904) D. Appleton & 

Co., N. Y $3.00 

Shipper, Edw., Navy Battles of the World: (1895) P. W. Ziegler & Co., 

Chicago $2.50 

Wilkerson, S., Command of the Sea: (1900) Dodd, Mead & Co., N. Y $1.25 

Wilmot, S. M. E., Our Fleet Today: [Rev. ed. of "The Development of 
Navies During the Last Half Century."] (1900) Chas. Scribner's 
Sons, N. Y $1.75 

Enlargement of the U. S. Navy. [Reprints of articles 

both in favor of and against the increase of the navy, and on the 
limited disarmament of the leading powers] (1906) The H. W. Wil- 
son Co., Minneapolis » $1.00 

MAGAZINES 

Annals of the Amer. Acad, of Polit. and Social Science., 

26:123 (July, '05) "Importance of her Navy to the U. S." — G. W. Melville. 
26:137 (July, '05) "Extent to which the Navy of the U. S. should be In- 
creased." — F. Rogers. 
26:163 (July, '05) "Needs of the Navy."— W. H. Beehler. 



—11— 

Arena, 39:319 (Mch., '08) "Is the U. S. Gov't Making Criminals?" — A. F. 

Ransom. 
Athenaeum, 1:585 (May 7, '04) "The New U. S. Navy."— J. D. Long. 
Atlantic Mo., 82:605 (Nov., '98) "U. S. Navy in the War with Spain."— I. N. 

Hollis. 

90:383 (Sept., '02) "The New U. S. Navy." — Talcott Williams. 
Cassier's Mag., 13:423 (Mch., '98) "U. S. Navy Officer of the Future."— W. M. 

McFarland. 

14:283 (Apr., '98) "Naval War."— P. H. Colomb. 

17:473 (Apr., '00) "Engineering in the Navy." — G. W. Melville. 

21:258 ( ) "Engineers in the Navy." — G. W. Melville. 

25:446 (Mch., '04) "The World's Naval Strength." — Alfred Smith. 

27:71 (Nov., '04) "Proposed 20,000-ton American Battleships." 

30:245,557 (July, '06, Oct., '06) "Amer. Naval Organization and the Per- 
sonnel Law of 1899."— G. W. Melville. 

31:371 (Mch., '07) "Comparison between the Naval Strength of Germany 

and Great Britain" — 

32:467 (Oct., '07) "American Fleet from an Eng. Point of View." — A.S. 

Hurd. 
Chautauquan, 27:273 (June, '98) "U. S. Navy." — H. W. Raymond. 
Contemporary Rev., 89:153 (Feb., '06) "Rival Navies." — G. J. S. Lefevre. 
Cornhill Mag., 90:312 (Sept., '04) "Naval Warfare Today."— Sir C. Bridge. 
Cosmopolitan, 29:609 (Oct., '00) "Our Navy Fifty Years from Now." — W. E. 

Chandler. 

44:371 (Mch., '08) "Lads who are Taking the Fleet Around." — R. H. Barry. 
Current Literature, 36:165 (Feb., '04) "New American Navy." — J. D. Long. 

44:12 (Jan., '08) "Is our Pacific course pacific?" — 

44:124 (Feb., '08) "Our Navy Under Fire." — 

44:597 (June, '08) "Four Battleships and Two Battleships." — 

44:601 (June, *08) "Twenty Battleships Yearly." — 
Fortnightly Rev., 74:100 (July, '00) "Naval Strength of the Seven Sea Pow- 
ers." — J. H. Schooling. 

74:228 (Aug., '00) "Armaments of Seven Navies." — J. H. Schooling. 

81:685 (Apr., '04) "Naval Concentration." — A. S. Hurd. 

89:201 (Feb., '08) "Voyage of the American Fleet." — S. Brooks. 
Forum, 24:1 (Sept., '97) "A Plea for the U. S. Navy."— H. A. Herbert. 

25:267 (May, '98) "Fifty Million Appropriations and its Lessons." — H. A. 

Herbert. 

27:1 (Mch., '99) "Future of the U. S. Navy."— H. C. Taylor. 

29:161 (Apr., '00) "Immediate Needs of U. S. Navy." — W. H. Jaques. 
Gunton's Mag., 14:1 (Jan., '98) "Needs of the U. S. Navy." — Theodore Roose- 
velt. 

24:357, "Our Naval Strength." 

27:484 (Nov., '04) "Barbarity of Naval Warfare."— S. Sams. 
Harper's Mo. Mag., 91:767 (Oct., '95) "Future of American Naval Power." — 

A. T. Mahan. 

94:579 (Mch., '97) "Preparedness for Naval War." — A. T. Mahan. 

97:738 (Oct., '98) "U. S. Navy in Asiatic Waters."— W. E. Griffis. 

108:87 (Dec, '03) "Beginnings of U. S. Navy." — J. R. Spears. 
Harper's Weekly, 47:455, "Guarding Three Sea Roads." — 

48:1381 (Sept. 10, '04) "Recent Additions to our Navy." — 

48:1838 (Dec. 3, '05) "Our Fighting Strength at Sea."— W. S. Meriwether. 

49:53 (Jan. 14, '05) "England's Recognition of our Navy." — H. C. Gouss. 

49:316,320,330 (Mch. 4, '06) "Progress in the Navy."— Paul Morton. 

49:938 (July 1, '05) "What America has Learned from Toga." — B. A. Fiske. 

49:1188 (Aug. 19, '05) "Value of Armored Cruisers in our Navy." — W. S. 

Meriwether. 

50:337 (Mch. 10, '06) "Why We Need a Bigger Navy."— W. S. Meriwether. 

50:1530 (Oct. 27, '06) "Thrilling Moment with the Atlantic Fleet."— W. S. 

Meriwether. 



—12— 

51:95 (Jan. 19, '07) "Race for Naval Supremacy."— W. G. Fitz-Gerald. 

51: 173 (Feb. 2, '07) "Only Eight Great Navies."— 

51:504 (Apr. 6, '07) "Needs of the Navy."— J. B. Coghlan. 

51:583 (Apr. 20, '07) "Secrecy to be Maintained." — 

51:1067 (July 20, '07) "Seeking a U. S. Naval Base on the Pacific."— 

51:1518 (Oct. 19, '07) "Clearing for Action."— A. T. Mahan. 

51:1754 (Nov. 30, '07) "Practice Cruise to the Pacific." — W. S. Meriwether. 

52:7 (Jan. 4, '08) "Our Armada: Its Precursors and Significance." — 

52:10 (Jan. 4, '08) "For a Fight or a Frolic."— 

52:22 (Jan. 18, '08) "American Navy Second in the World." — N. Forest. 

52:10 (Jan. 25, '08) "Work and Play of the Fleet." — R. Dunn. 

52:10 (Feb. 8, '08) "Truth about the Navy." — C. B. Brewer. 

52:10 (Feb. 22, '08) "Crossing the Line with the Fleet."— R. Dunn. 

52:13 (May 9, '08) "Homeward Run of the Battleship Fleet." — R. Dunn. 

52:16 (May 16, '08) "With the Fleet on its Triumphal Return."— H. C. 

Davis. 

52:20 (May 21, '08) "Whiling Away the Endless Miles and Hours." — P. 

Andrews. 
Independent, 51:183 (Jan. 19, '99) "Bill for National Naval Reserve." — P. Ben- 
jamin. 

52:15 (Jan. 4, '00) "Navy without Engineers." — J. E. Jenks. 

52:2261 (Sept. 20, '00) "New War Code of U. S. Navy."— P. Benjamin. 

53:76 (Jan. 10, '01) "Development of National Naval Reserve." — J. W. 

Miller. 

53:1529 (July 4, '01) "Navy's Contribution to the Maintenance of Inde- 
pendence." — J. D. Long. 

53: 2973 (Dec. 12, '01) "Ebbtide in the Navy."— G. W. Melville. 

54:2804 (Nov. 27, '02) "How to Meet Need of National Officers."— P. Ben- 
jamin. 

57:972 (Oct. 27, '04) "New Navy."— C. E. Jefferson. 

58:22 (Jan. 5, '05) "With Admiral Toga on the Tenth of August." — 

58:639 (Mch. 23, '05) "Shall the Navy be Increased?'" — J. D. Long. 

58:1276 (June 8, '05) "What Toga's Victory Means to Us."— P. Benjamin. 

59:20 (July 6, '05) "Anglo-American Navy." — Paul Morton. 

69:605 (Sept. 14, '05) "Growth of Navies." — J. Bryce. 

60:111 (May 10, '06) "Increase of the Navy and France." — 

60.: 768 (Apr. 5, '06) "Internationalism and Naval Supremacy." — R. P. 

Hobson. 

60:898 (Apr. 19, '06) "Dreadnaught Scare." — P. Benjamin. 

60:993 (Apr. 26, '06) "More Naval Carelessness." — 

60:1036 (May 3, '06) "Is the Navy Getting a Square Deal?" — P. Benjamin. 

61:590 (Sept. 6, '06) "Our Navy and our Commercial Marine." — 

62:264,323 (Jan. 31, Feb. 7, '07) "The Shout for Big Ships."— P. Benjamin. 

62:1481 (June 20, '07) "Our Battleship Show." — 

63:1545 (Dec. 26, '07) "Parade to the Pacific." — P. Benjamin. 

64:302 (Feb. 6, '08) "Trouble in the Navy." — P. Benjamin. 

64:350 (Feb. 13, '08) "Demand for More Battleships." — L. A. Mead. 

64:479 (Feb. 27, '08) "Our Readiness for War." — 

64:927 (Apr. 23, '08) "President's Defeat."— 

64:961 (Apr. 30, '08) "Fleet," (poem)— E. V. Cooke. 

64:978 (Apr. 30, '08) "Senator Hale's Plain Talk."— 

64:1005 (May 7, '08) "Our Fleet." (poem) — G. Shoup. 

65:185 (July 23, '08) "What is an Adequate Navy?" — P. Benjamin. 
Jour, of the Franklin Institute, 158:209 (Sept. 4) "Strength of the IT. S. Navy." 

— G. W. Melville. 
Living Age, 255:440 (Nov. 16, '07) "Cruise of the Amer. Fleet to the Pacific."— 

256:119 (Jan. 11, '08) "America in the Pacific." — 

256:579 (Mch. 7, '08) "Voyage of the American Fleet." — S. Brooks. 
McClure's Mag., 30:251,517 (Jan., Feb., '08) "Needs of our Navy." — H. Reuter- 

dahl. 



—13— 

Making of America, 9:273 (1906) "Upbuilding the Navy."— Robt. M. La Follette. 
9:278 (1906) "The Navy and its Future." — Robt. M. La Follette. 
9:288 (1906) "The New Navy: Its Growth and its Hist." — Robt. M. La 
Follette. 

Midland Monthly, 10:195 (Sept., '98) "Growth of U. S. Navy."— M. Irving. 

Munsey's Mag., 17:182 (May, '97) "Our Navy and our Naval Policy." — H. A. 
Herbert. 

19:485 (July, '98) "Our Fighting Navy." — R. R. Wilson. 
24:856 (Mch., '01) "U. S. and German Navies." — W. S. Meriwether. 
26:879 (Mch., '02) "Secret of our Naval Strength." — L. L, Griggs. 
36:170 (Nov., '05) "The World's Race for Sea Power."— R. P. Hobson. 

Nation, 71:360 (Nov. 8, '00) "Threatened Naval Increase." — 

75:375 (Nov. 13, '02) "Officers of the U. S. Navy."— O. G. Villard. 

76: 324 (Apr. 23, '03) "Naval Folly."— 

78:42 (Jan. 21, '04) "Naval Disorganization." — 

78:52 (Jan. 21, '04) "The New U. S. Navy."— J. D. Long. 

81:516 (Dec. 28, '05) "What the Navy Needs."— 

86:368 (Apr. 23, '08) "Controversy over the Battleships." — 

86:415 (May 7, '08) "Another Weary Titon."— 

86: 571 (June 25, '08) "Luxury of Hatred." — 
National Rev., 17:133 (Oct., '02) "U. S. Naval Defense Problem". — J. .C 

O'Laughlin. 

29:916 (Aug., '97) "Future of Naval Warfare." — P. H. Colomb. 

30:284 (Oct., '97) Reply.— H. J. May. 

39:701 (July, '02) "Disposition of Navies." — A. T. Mahan. 
New Eng. Mag. (N. S.), 37:651 (Feb., '08), "New Eng. Secretaries of the 

Navy." — C. O. Paullin. 

38:506 (June, '08) "History of the U. S. Navy." — J. R. Spears. 
Nineteenth Cent., 45:620 (Apr., '99) "Growth of Navies." — H. W. Wilson. 

46:180 (Aug., '99) "Limitation to Naval Force." — G. S. Clarke. 

52:893,904 (Dec, '02) "America's Bid for Naval Supremacy."— A. S. Hurd. 

57:140 (Jan., '05) "Naval Questions." — E. Robertson. 

58:308 (Aug., '05) "Contest for Sea Power; Germanys' Opportunity." — A. 

S. Hurd. 

61:377 (Mch., '07) "British Fleet and the Balance of Sea Power." — A. S. 

Hurd. 

63:485 (Mch., '08) "British Two-power Fleet."— A. S. Hurd. 
N. Amer. Rev., 149:54 (July, '89) "Our Future Navy." — S. S. Luce. 

167:641 (Dec, '98) "Reorganization of the Naval Personnel."— F. H. Wil- 
son, Theodore Roosevelt, J. W. Philips, G. W. Melville, G. E. Foss. 

174:182 (Feb., '02) "Launching a Battleship from Congressional Ways." — 

W. McAdoo. 

175:388 (Sept., '02) "Greatest Need of U. S. Navy."— R. C. Smith. 

175: 544 (Oct., '02) "America, Mistress of the Seas." — R. P. Hobson. 

176:376 (Mch., '03) "Our Actual Naval Strength."— G. W. Melville. 

178:820 (June, '04) "The New U. S. Navy."— W. H. White. 

179:887 (Dec, '04) "British and American Naval Expenditure." — C. Bellairs. 

182.321 (Mch., '06) "Our Navy."— 
Outlook, 72:489,833 (Nov. 1, Dec. 6.) "New U. S. Navy."— J. D. Long. 

73:45,358 (Jan., Oct., '03) "The New U. S. Navy."— J. D. Long. 

75.500 (Oct. 31, '03) "The U. S. Navy and Peace."— G. G. Wilson. 

79:485 (Feb. 25, '05) "Need of a Continuous Building Program." — H. Reut- 

erdahl. 

81:686 (Nov. 25, '05) "Serious Defect in our Navy." — 

81:1903 (Dec. 16. '05) "Secretary Bonaparte's Report for 1905." 

86:937 (Aug. 31, '07) "Strength of the American Navy."— 

87:139 (Sept. 28, '07) "Navy and the Pacific Coast."— 

87.791 (Dec. 7, '07) "Roosevelt's Naval Policy."— Chas. F. Dole. 



—14— 

87:804 (Dec. 14, '07) "Shall We Increase the Navy?"— 

87:839 (Dec. 21, '07) "Cruise of the Battle Fleet." — 

87:881 (Dec. 21, '07) "Navy as a Police Force." — Chas. F. Dole. 

88:3 (Jan. 4, '08) "Defects of our Navy." — 

88:73 (Jan. 11, '08) "Roosevelt Doctrine of a Strong Navy."— H. S. 

Pritchett. 

88:281 (Feb. 1, '08) "Pritchett's Plea for a Strong Navy."— C. M. Mead. 

88:469 (Feb. 29, '08) "Navy Defended."— 

88: 896 (April 25, '08) "Naval Battle in Congress." — 

89:19 (May 2, '08) "Fleet in Being." — R. F. Zogbaum. 

89:149 (May 23, '08) "San Francisco's Welcome to the Fleet." — G. P. 

Putnam. 

89:731 (Aug. 1, '08) "Uncle Sam's Peace Insured." — 

[Note: "The New American Navy," two vols, of plates, portraits, and 

maps, by J. D. Long, is published by the Outlook Co.. N. Y.] 

Overland Mo., 50:197 (Sept., '07) "Defending the Pacific Coast." — A. H. Dutton. 
51: 265 (Mch., '08) "When the Great Fleet Arrives."— A. H. Dutton. 

Pacific Mo., 15:98 (Jan., '06) "The Coming Supremacy of the Pacific." — W. 
von Schierbrand. 

Pall Mall Mag., 15:418 (July, 98) "Naval Power and the Spanish-Amer. War." 

— H. W. Wilson. 

16:256 (Oct., '98) "Naval Power of the European Nations compared." — 

M. Warren. 
Rev. of Revs., 17:68 (Jan., '98) "Rebuilt Navy of the U. S."— T. Roosevelt and 

J. D. Long. 

17: 71 (Jan., '98) "Need of U. S. Navy." — Theodore Roosevelt. 

25:561 (May, '02) "New U. S. Navy."— G. W. Melville. 

27:273 (Mch., '03) "Strength of the Navy in Treaties." — 

31:696 (June, '05) "Maneuvers of a War Fleet in Time of Peace." — G. U. 

Harvey. 

32:360 (Sept., '05) "Italian Views of the Development of our Navy." — 

37:88 (Jan., '08) "True Significance of the Pacific Cruise." — A. T. Mahan. 

37:456 (Apr., '08) "Greatest Naval Cruise of Modern Times." — W. L. 

Marvin. 

37:515 (May, '08) "Shall We Maintain the Navy?" 

37:609 (May, '08) "How Chili Received our Fleet." 
St. Nicholas, 35:3,126,238,318,405,500,599,718 (Nov., '07- June, '08) "Three Years 

Behind the Guns." — L. G. T. 
Saturday Evening Post, 180:17,36 (Oct. 26, '07) "Our Fighting Ships: the 

New Navy that has been built up in the Last Decade." — J. R. Spears. 
Sci. Amer., 65:180,198 ( ) "Gov't Development of Submarine Vessels." 

— R. G. Skerrett. 

87:252 ( ) "Pressing Need of our Navy for More Officers." — 

88:18 ( ) "Proposed Increase of our Navy." — 

88:95 ( ) "Needed Increase of our Navy." — C. De Zafra. 

90: 114 (Feb. 6, '04) "Relative Strength of the Naval Powers."— 

90:363 (May 7, '04) "Growth of our Navy." — 

92:418 (May 27, '05) "Battleship Strength of the Navies of the World." 

93:26 (July 8, '05) "Sea Strength of the Naval Powers." — 

95:194 (Sept. 15, '06) "Growth of our Navy Since the War." — 

95:338 (Nov. 10, '06) "New Rating of the World's Fleets."— 

97: 4 (July 6, '07) "Our Naval Forces in the Pacific." — 

97:406 (Dec. 7, '07) "Battleship and Gun of the Future."— 

97:407 (Dec. 7, '07) "True Significance of the Pacific Cruise." — A. T. 

Mahan. 

98:38,60 (Jan. 18 and 25, '08) "The Reuterdahl Attack on our Navy."— 

(Same in McClure's.) 

98:95 (Feb. 8, '08) "Recent Criticisms on our Navy." — E. van Bremmer. 



—15— 

98:122 (Feb. 22, '08) "Navy and Naval Criticism." — 

98: 183 (Men. 14, '08) "Recent Criticisms on our Navy." — J. Lynn. 

98:238 (Apr. 4, '08) "Senate Hearing on the Alleged Defects of our Navy." 

98:243 (Apr. 4, '08) "Naval Criticisms." — 

98:306 (May 2, '08) "Sir William White on the Amer. Navy." — 

98:386 (May 30, '08) "Our Rank as Second Naval Power." — 

98:440 (June 20, '08) "Training in the Navy." — J. R. Cox. 

Scribner's Mag., 24:529 (Nov. '98) "U. S. Navy in the War with Spain.'"— F. 
E. Chadwick. 
40:659 (Dec, '06) "Navy in Review."— J. B. Connolly. 

United Service, 41:986 (Mch., '03) "Naval Legislation in the 57th Cong., 2nd 
Session." — H. C. Gaus. 
41:1057 (Apr., '03) "General Interest in the Navy." — L, S. Landreth. 

Westminster Rev., 147:504 (May, '97) "Naval Defense." 

167:627 (June, '07) "State Navies." — N. Barnaby. 
World's Work, 6:3420 (May, '03) "Naval Strength of the Powers." — A. Gleaves. 

9:5515 (Nov., '04) "Will Battleships be Obsolete?" — M. Robertson. 

9:6035 (Apr., '05) "Tragedy of the Port Arthur Fleet." — 

14:167 (Feb., '08) "Fighting Ships of the Future." — D. T. Pierce. 

16: 10295 (June, '08) "Proper Strength of our Navy." — 

16:10352 (June, '08) "Great Naval Cruise." — J. F. Dyer. 
World To- Day, 15:741 (July, '08) "Colonialism, the Defense of our Outlying 

Possessions." — R. P. Hobson. 

GOVERNMENT REPORTS. 

Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy, (1850-1906) 58 vols, in 53. — 
Gov't Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Congressional Record, Vol. 40, 59th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 6387, "Naval 
Appropriation Bill." — Speech in House, by T. E. Burton, May 4, 1906. 
Vol. 42, 60th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 64, President Roosevelt's Message, Dec. 
3, '07. 

Vol. 42, 60th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 2278, Eugene Hale's Speech in Senate, 
Feb. 19, '08. 

Vol. 42, 60th Cong., 1st. Sess., p. 2397, G. C. Perkin's Speech in Senate, 
Feb. 21, '08. 
Vol. 42, 60th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 4751, Debate in House, Apr. 10, '08. 

Congressional Series, 

1902-1904 

See Putnam's 

Ed. of same. 

57th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 324, President Roosevelt's Message 
57th Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 365, President Roosevelt's Message 
58th Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 412, President Roosevelt's Message 
59th Cong., 1st Sess., (1906) "Naval Appropriation Bill." 
59th Cong., 1st Sess., (1907) "Hearings Before Committee on Naval Af- 
fairs." 
60th Cong., 1st Sess., (1908) House Report, "Naval Appropriation Bill." 

Hearings Before the U. S. Senate Committee on Naval Affairs: Bill to in- 
crease the efficiency of the personnel of the Navy and Marine Corps, 
(Feb. 25-Mch. 11, '08), Gov't Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Special Reports (House) "Committee on Naval Affairs," (Dec. 10, '06-Jan. 
18, '07). 

Special Reports (House) "Naval Appropriation Bill." (Apr. 8, '08). 

Supt. of Documents: List of publications, documents and reports relating to 
the construction of the new navy; also references to the debates in Con- 
gress on the subject. 



—16- 



D1STRICT CONTESTS 



In order that the students, who are defeated in the first series of debates 
may have an opportunity to practice debating, the following scheme for pair- 
ing teams has been adopted for the year 1908-09: 



Contests for the Cup and Other 
Prizes. 



Contests for Honorable Mention. 



FIRST SERIES, BETWEEN OCT. 1 AND DEC 1. 



(1) A high school vs. B high school. 

(2) C high school vs. D high school. 

(3) E high school vs. F high school. 

(4) G high school vs. H high school. 



SECOND SERIES, BETWEEN DEC 1 AND JAN. 1. 



(5) winner in (1) vs. winner in (2). 

(6) winner in (3) vs. winner in (4). 



(5*) loser in (1) vs. loser in (2). 
(6*) loser in (3) vs. loser in (4). 



THIRD SERIES, BETWEEN JAN. 1 AND FEB. 1. 



(7) winner in (5) vs. winner in (6). 



(7*) winner in (5*) vs. winner in 

(6*). 
(8*) loser in (5) vs. loser in (6). 



The winner in (7) shall be the 
regular district champion team, and 
shall be entitled to be pitted against 
one of the other regular district 
champion teams, in the regular in- 
ter-district contests, and if success- 
ful in the inter-district contest, shall 
be entitled to take part in the regu- 
lar final contest at Missoula. 



BETWEEN F EB. 1 AND MCH. 1. 

(9*) winner in (7*) vs. winner in 
(8*). 

The winner in (9*) shall be the 
district champion team of honorable 
mention, and shall be entitled to be 
pitted against a similar team in one 
of the other districts, and if suc- 
cessful, shall be entitled to take part 
In a special final contest, to be held 
at Missoula or at any other place 
agreed upon by the president of the 
league and the principals of the two 
schools represented in the special 
contest. 



|| In the second series, winner in (1) may, at the discretion of the director, be 
pitted against winner in (3) or winner in (4); and loser in (1) against loser in 
(3) or loser in (4) — whichever happens to be the most convenient for the 
schools concerned — the matter to be decided by the director as soon as pos- 
sible after the first series of contests. Similar changes may be made by the 
director for the district contests that come after the second series. In follow- 
ing this plan some schools will necessarily have to be declared winners by 
default. 



—17— 



RESULTS OF THE DEBATES IN 1907-08 



WESTERN DISTRICT. 

First Series: 

Missoula (aff.) won over Philipsburg (neg\), Dec. 13. 
Boulder (neg.) won over Hamilton (aff.), Jan. 18. 

Second Series: 

Missoula (aff.) won over Boulder (neg.), Feb. 28. 

Missoula the champion for the Western District. 



NORTHERN DISTRICT. 
First Series: 

Townsend (neg.) won over Helena (aff.), Dec. 20. 
Great Falls (aff.) won over Kalispell (neg\), Jan. 10. 

Second Series: 

Townsend (neg.) won over Great Falls (aff.), Jan. 31. 

Townsend the champion for the Northern District. 



EASTERN DISTRICT. 
First Series: 

Columbus (aff.) won over Red Dodge (neg.), Nov. 29. 

Billings (neg.) won over Forsyth (aff.), Dec. 20. 

Second Series: 

Columbus (aff.) won over Billings (neg.), Mch. 21. 

Columbus the champion for the Eastern District. 



SOUTHERN DISTRICT. 

Livingston (neg.) won over Bozeman (aff.), Feb. 17. 

Livingston the champion for the Southern District. 



INTER-DISTRICT CONTESTS. 

Missoula (aff.) won over Townsend (neg.), Mch. 27. 
Columbus (aff.) won over Livingston (neg.), Apr. 18. 



FINAL CONTEST. 

Missoula (aff.), won over Columbus (neg.) May 11. 



—18— 

SPEECHES OF THE WINNING TEAM 

AT THE FINAL. CONTEST, MAY 11, 1908 



FIRST AFFIRMATIVE— FLORENCE MATTHEWS. 

The question for debate this evening is: "Resolved, That boards of arbi- 
tration with compulsory power, should be established to settle disputes 
between labor and capital." 

I, as the first affirmative, shall state the line of action which my col- 
leagues and I will follow: 

We will prove — 

First. That there is need of government intervention. 

Second. That compulsory arbitration is the best way in which the gov- 
ernment may intervene. 

Third. That so far as it is possible to judge it will be successful. 

In the time alloted to me I will endeavor to prove that the public peace 
and welfare of this country demand intervention of law in settling the dis- 
turbance between labor and capital. 

All institutions in this, or any other country, approach perfection through 
development and evolution. For this reason, as well as from the statement 
of the question, it is not incumbent upon the affirmative to give a complete 
analysis of the system. I shall, however, give an outline, which would serve 
as a working basis. 

There shall be a board in every state consisting of three members, one 
appointed by the Governor from the nominees of the employers, and one from 
the nominees of the employees; the third shall be the Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court. Then there shall be a national board for the settling of 
interstate disputes, appointed by the President in the same manner as the 
state boards. These boards should have the power to compel the presence of 
all the books, papers, and witnesses needed to make clear any point. We 
strongly advocate the public exposition of every case. Provisions should be 
made for all the details of the proceedings to be calculated throughout the 
country, by means of the papers. This would be an extra incentive for the 
court to deal carefully with the workings of the law. 

Prof. Frank Parsons, Dean of the Boston Law School, in an article on 
compulsory arbitration in the Arena, says: "It is the duty of the govern- 
ment, through the labor court after careful investigation, to set a fair wage 
that which the business will allow, so that labor may not be degraded to sell 
itself for the mere duress of necessity." The court sets the minimum wage, 
below which, the employer is not allowed to go. This done, there is no need 
for further interference with personal contract. If the men see fit to quit 
work, they may go where they will. The law we advocate will protect the 
men who fill their vacant places in the right to work. 

Our constitution promises to "insure domestic tranquility," and "promote 
the general welfare." On the principle that the public good is the highest 
good, all manner of laws have been established, not one of which but restricts 
some one's liberty, in order that greater liberty may be diffused. The quar- 
antine and pure-food laws protect the public health. There are strictly 
enforced laws in regard- to keeping the public peace. 

Prof. Parsons says: "Common sense demands the application to indus- 
trial disputes of the same principle that applies to other disputes." He gives 
for an example: "If A and B fight in the street, they are punished by law 
for public disturbance. They are told that courts are established on purpose 
to do justice between them and if they cannot agree they may appeal to the 



—19— 

courts, but they must not resort to combat." Why should a corporation and 
its employees be allowed to fight out their quarrels in the street, to the 
disturbance of the public peace, the destruction of life and property and the 
annihilation of justice? Every reason that applies in the former case for 
putting decision by reason in place of decision by force applies in the latter 
case with double power. 

To prove that there is cause for intervention by law, I have only to cite 
you to the record of past years. In 19 years, from 1881 to 1900, statistics 
show that there have been in the United States 22,793 strikes, involving 
117,509 establishments, and throwing 6,105,694 employees out of work. The 
loss to the employers was $122,000,000, and the loss of wages to the employees 
was $257,000,000. To say nothing of the suffering caused by the suspension 
of work. Then, too, this does not include the enormous loss to the public, 
as there is no way of ascertaining it. 

Another example is that of the great railroad strike in Pennsylvania. 
The damage done to private property, by the mob, in this strike, amounted to 
$5,000,000. Half of which had to be paid by the county of Alleghaney, or in 
other words, the taxpayers of the county. My authority for this is Prof. 
F. Parsons. 

Besides the continual smaller strikes, we have had the battles of Pullman, 
Hazleton, Homestead, and Cripple Creek, the massacres of policemen, in 
Haymarket Square, during the eight-hour strike in Chicago, and of the coal 
miners at Latimer. In the street- car strikes at Cleveland, St. Louis, Albany, 
and other places, we have had riots bloodier than many South African 
encounters. 

The question to be settled this evening is: Shall this brutal warfare of 
strikes be allowed to go on and on, or shall we courageously venture to place 
the control of law and order over a field where now reigns only chaos? 

We have received our due share of peace from the hard struggles of the 
past. The early colonists met the mighty questions of their day, and left us 
this beloved country. Our grandfathers and great-grandfathers settled ques- 
tions as perplexing to them in their day as that of capital and labor is to 
us today. In the words of Senator Carter, spoken in Missoula last Labor Day: 

"It falls to our lot to banish forever from this fair land destructive indus- 
trial warfare by providing for the settlement of disputed labor questions, in 
an orderly manner, according to equity and justice. The future peace, unity, 
and prosperity of our beloved country is involved in the timely, just, and 
effective settlement of this great question." Senator Carter says "The sys- 
tem rests upon two broad facts: First, that decision by reason is better than 
decision by force, and, second, that there are three parties in interest, in 
every industrial dispute, labor, capital, and the public, and as the public 
always wants arbitration, if either of the other two desire it also, there is a 
majority, of two to one, in favor of a peaceful settlement. 

The law does not take away any of the rights of the working man. Per- 
sonal freedom is expressed by the working man of today as the "right to 
work." This right the laborer will still continue to have under the law. A 
man's right to his body, his hands, to earn a living for himself and family, is 
a right which none may deny. 

While upholding the union man's right to quit work, we, no less arduously 
support the right of his fellow man and co-laborer, the non-union man. He, 
too, has a right to his body, his hands, to earn a living for himself and fam- 
ily. When and wherever he sees fit to work, the law we advocate will pro- 
tect him in this right. In the brutal warfare of today, Might only is Right. 

In an article on "Personal Liberty and Labor Strikes." in the North 
American Review, the Most Reverend John Ireland, archbishop of St. Paul, 
says: "A man's right to work is one of the most intimate rights of his being. 
It is the right to the exercise of his bodily and mental faculties. It is more, 
it is the right to his life, which depends for sustenance, on the fruits of his 
labor." He further argues: "If some workmen think it better to continue 
working on the same terms as before, what right have the others to force 



—20— 

them into the strike by threats, insults, and bad usage? Are they not free 
agents in their own affairs to act as they think best? This is an unjust claim, 
an offense against the liberty of the subject, and deserves the utmost rigor 
of the law." 

The union man's claim is, that as a matter of warfare, they have the 
right to interfere with the non-union man's right, but we know that no one 
but the government has the right to declare war, but in the absence of the 
law the unions have grown to be a law unto themselves, for it is onljr deter- 
ring the non-union men from filling the place of the strikers, that the strikes 
can fulfill their mission. 

Protect the non-union men in their inherent right to work, and the 
strike of necessity, becomes extinct. That is precisely what the law we 
advocate will accomplish. 

Public sentiment only sustains the strike with its disturbing terrorisms, 
because there is no court instituted for the settling of their claims. If a 
court of justice, on the analogy of other courts of law were instituted for the 
settlement of the claims of capital and labor, public sentiment would be a 
great enforcer of the law. 

W. W. Willoughby, Associate Professor of Political Science at John Hop- 
kins University, says: "Public opinion is the strongest enforcer of law we 
have." He states: "There is every reason to believe that the mere fact 
that the merits of a controversy between laborers and their employers, have 
once been investigated and passed upon by a body of men whose public 
standing vouches for their ability and impartiality, will of itself, so greatly 
control public opinion as to make its influence sufficiently great as to compel 
in very many cases an acceptance by the parties concerned of the decisions 
rendered." 

John Bates Clark, Professor of Political Economy in Columbia University, 
says: "Only the attitude of the people now prevents officials from enforcing 
the law which protects independent laborers, and if that attitude were 
reversed, the law would certainly be enforced. The attitude of the people 
would almost certainly be reversed, if it were clear to them that the strikers 
had the option of working under perfectly fair conditions, rnd had refused 
to do so." 



SECOND SPEAKER— GEORGE P. STONE. 

My colleague has shown you the need of a peaceful method of settling 
strikes for the sake of the contestants and she has really already proved the 
need of a remedy; I will, nevertheless, go farther and show that while labor 
and capital are the only direct contestants in these struggles that there is a 
third party to every dispute between the laboring man and his employer, a 
party which is much more vitally interested than either of the others, one 
whose very life and liberty depends upon the peaceful settlement of the strike, 
this party is the consuming public. 

By the public I mean all persons not contestants in the direct sense of 
the word; that is, all persons neither trade-unionists nor persons employing 
them. Although, according to the census of 1900, this party outnumbers labor 
and capital combined by 68,000,000 people, it apparently dares not lift its 
finger in self-defense. The public does not seem to realize that the corpora- 
tions and the labor unions are its servants and should work for the public 
good; it does not permit its domestic servants to bulldoze it but it accepts 
all manner of indignities from its other servants, the corporations and the 
labor unions. 

Every strike affects the public; it is the party which bears the burden of 
these struggles, for it is the party which pays for them. Even the great 
anthracite coal strike of 1902-3, which is frequently cited as an example to 
show that no remedy is necessary, cost the public an inestimable sum of 
money and caused terrible suffering among the poorer classes. Speaking of 



this particular strike, Ray Stannard Baker, who is perhaps the greatest 
authority on these questions whom we have in the world today, says, in an 
article in McClure's Magazine for September, 1903: "The great public has 
already had by far the worst of the labor dispute; it puts down its hand 
into its pocket to pay for a settlement in the anthracite coal fields; is paying 
today; will pay tomorrow." Such examples as this clearly show what is the 
result when the settlement is left to the disputants. We have given labor 
and capital opportunities enough to settle their own disputes peacefully and 
they have let them go. There is now nothing left for them but settlement 
by proper legislation. 

Now, then, that it is evident that some legislative action is necessary 
the question is: What direction shall this action take? History and the 
experience of the present show that something is needed to settle rather than 
to attempt to prevent the dispute, for so long as the laboring man looks upon 
his employer as a pitiless ogre who is merely trying to squeeze as much labor 
out of him for as little pay as possible, and as long as the capitalist regards 
his men as mere machines without a human mind or soul, whom he must 
continually be fighting and oppressing in order to make them work, both will 
be dissatisfied and disputes will be inevitable. The prevention of disputes 
is a task for time and the gradual enlightening of the human race to accom- 
plish, what we need now is something to settle them. 

There is but one method of settling any kind of a dispute peaceably in 
which both sides maintain an equal footing. This system is arbitration. 
There are, however, two kinds of arbitration — Voluntary and compulsory. 
Voluntary arbitration is a failure in that it does not take human nature into 
consideration. It provides for a peaceful private settlement of the dispute, 
but in case of failure of such a settlement gives the contestants no alternative 
save a settlement by force, and it is but natural that in cases of great import 
private settlement should fail and the result is riot and bloodshed. It is for 
these cases that compulsory arbitration provides. It gives the contestants 
the right to make a peaceful private settlement, but in case of failure of such 
a settlement it provides for a public trial of the dispute by a disinterested 
board, composed equally of representatives of the two parties, and presided 
over by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. All modern courts are 
merely boards of arbitration with compulsory power. We do not permit pri- 
vate individuals to settle their disputes by force when private settlement 
fails. Voluntary arbitration in civil life would be a farce and if properly 
looked at is equally ridiculous in the industrial world. 

There are people who believe that all men's differences should be settled 
by voluntary arbitration. This is the beautiful theory of anarchy, and vol- 
untary arbitration will be able to take the place of compulsory arbitration 
when anarchy takes the place of law and order. The same thing that 
demands the law demands the mode of settlement which we are advocating — 
man's imperfections. 

The fact that it is called compulsory arbitration seems to have prejudiced 
some people against it. The name gives the idea that it means the forcing 
of men to work and to arbitrate against their wills, but it does not. No man 
is forced either to work or to arbitrate. The law merely compels the man 
who is unwilling to do so to refrain from violence and to respect the rights 
of his fellow-laborers and employers. Speaking of the use of this name, 
Henry Demorest Lloyd, a prominent authority on arbitration, says: "Com- 
pulsory arbitration courts are no more compulsory than ordinary courts of 
law. Compulsory arbitration means only arbitration by law. If we always 
say compulsory arbitration we ought also always to say compulsory taxation, 
compulsory sanitation, compulsory charities. In Boston or New York or 
Chicago, where public baths are maintained at the expense of the city treas- 
ury, the taxpayers of the city wash each other's feet by compulsion. Com- 
pulsory arbitration adopted by a majority, after public discussion, is volun- 
tary arbitration. 



—22— 

The forcing of bodies of men to settle their disputes peaceably is no more 
of an enforcement upon their personal liberties than the forcing them to 
keep the peace as private individuals. It is rather one of the restrictions 
which civilized society places upon its members in all phases of their exist- 
ence in order that it and they may live. 

According to a strict interpretation of the question, "Resolved, That 
boards of arbitration ought to be established," the affirmative has already 
proved the question, for we have shown: 

First — That existing conditions demand some remedy. 

Second — That they can be remedied not by executive, but by legislative 
action only. 

Third — That this action must settle rather than attempt to prevent the 
dispute. 

Fourth — That there is only one just way of settling any kind of a dispute 
peaceably, namely, arbitration. 

Fifth — That of the two kinds of arbitration, voluntary and compulsory, 
compulsory is the only practical one, and hence the one to be adopted. 

We will, however, make our argument doubly sure by proving that so 
far as it is possible to judge, before it has been given a fair trial, it will be 
successful; not that it will be ideal, however, for we do not claim that com- 
pulsory arbitration will entirely solve this greatest of all social questions; 
that it will bring the laboring man and his employer together, and that it will 
end the age-long war between the house of the million and the house of the 
millionaire, but we do claim that it is infinitely better than the present system 
of bloodshed, and that until the human race has reached that stage in its 
development where arbitration becomes no longer necessary, that, as the 
question states, boards of arbitration with compulsory power should be 
established to settle disputes between labor and capital. 



THIRD SPEAKER— EDWARD BARKER. 

The final and logical step in the development of the direct argument of 
the affirmative is taken when it is proved that an adjustment of the differ- 
ences between labor and capital by compulsory arbitration will, so far as it 
is possible to judge, prove sound in practice. 

Before making this proof it is well to analize the industrial condition in 
the United States as well as the spirit of the age. If the conditions in the 
industrial world are such that a settlement of disputes between labor and 
capital is impossible by intervention of government, then we must turn our 
attention to another mode of settlement; if the spirit of the age is adverse 
to a peaceful settlement we should no longer give such a mode of settlement 
any consideration. Before our opponents can refute our argument they must 
prove one of these two things. 

We may sum up for our opponents the conditions in the industrial world 
in a few words by saying that there are two great actors on the stage of 
industry; namely, labor and capital — labor made up of powerful unions; capi- 
tal made up of enormous corporations. Labor is constantly endeavoring to 
increase the pay and decrease the number of hours of work; capital is con- 
stantly endeavoring to decrease the pay and increase the number of hours 
of service. 

We gain a fair knowledge of the spirit of the age when it is said that 
we are living in an age of sweeping reforms. In large measure the people of 
this age are drawing away from precedents and learning to govern themselves 
by common sense. The last presidential administration has witnessed an 
attack on those so-called great corporations, and these efforts have been 
crowned with success to a large extent. It is more than probable, therefore, 
that our opponents will not attempt to show that the spirit of the age is 
adverse to that mode of settlement which we, the affirmative, are holding. 






I shall prove that this mode of settlement rests on sound principles; and, 
when the argument of the affirmative shall have thus been completed, it will 
stand as a proof which our opponents cannot destroy; neither am I making 
this statement without good reason. In the first place, to say that a proposed 
reform, although it rests on sound principles, will be a failure in a certain 
country in which it has never been tested is a vain statement and illogical in 
the extreme. Let me illustrate this: A republican form of government has 
proved an utter failure in the Central American states; but does this in any 
way signify that such form of government is doomed to a failure in other 
countries, such as England, for example? In the second place, our govern- 
ment has never made a trial of a settlement by authoritative arbitration; and 
for this very reason our opponents would find it an extremely difficult task 
to show that this kind of settlement would prove a failure, even if the affirm- 
ative took no further step to show that a settlement by authoritative arbitra- 
tion was based on sound principles. But the affirmative is going to take 
this step; and, since our opponents cannot refute the proposition that has 
just been given, their only hope lies in successfully disputing this last step. 
Indeed, if the negative wishes to attack the vital part of the question, they 
must confine themselves to this phase of the subject. 

It is possible for any one arguing from the negative standpoint of this 
question to build up a plausible proof on technicalities. But such an argu- 
ment is not worth the time it takes to refute; and, moreover, during this day 
and age, if we wish to make any progress we cannot adjust ourselves to the 
small technicalities, but the technicalities must adjust themselves to our 
needs. 

To some it may seem a mystery that the American public has tolerated 
to the extent it has that condition of anarchy in this country as a result of 
labor and capital being constantly engaged in quarreling. But, if we stop 
to consider that the public is tolerating this state of anarchy through fear of 
injuring honest laborers who are making demands nothing more than just, 
such action loses all its mystery. Indeed, one of the strongest points that 
we can produce on the affirmative side of this question springs from this 
very circumstance. When the boards of authoritative arbitration are estab- 
lished and the public is assured that labor is getting a square deal, it will no 
longer fear for the rights of honest working men, and woe unto that corpor- 
ation or that body of laborers that dares defy the law, when the public has 
come to know that justice is being done. 

The composition of the tribunals of authoritative arbitration has already 
been explained; and as no rational person is going to question the fairness 
of such tribunals, it is next in order to consider some of those so-called diffi- 
culties which will beset these boards in the discharge of their duties. The 
boards must, of course, be careful not to abridge the rights of freemen which 
are possessed by the employee, nor those granted by law or inherent in jus- 
tice, which the employer enjoys. But this very thing, a seeming difficulty 
will secure the public its rights while preserving those of both employer and 
employee and yet insisting on the obligations of both. 

While the workings and methods of procedure of these boards is largely 
a matter of legislative detail, there are three general questions which may 
arise concerning them: 

1. What will be the nature of the authority of these boards? 

2. How shall their decision be enforced? 

3. What guides will they have to aid them in making a decision? 

In answer to the first question I say that the boards will be dealing in 
most cases with corporations as far as employers are concerned. These cor- 
porations are the creatures of the state and are, therefore, certainly subject 
to the control of the state. The labor unions while not dependent on the 
state for the right of organization are, nevertheless, in a great majority of 
cases made up of citizens of the state and are, therefore, subject to the juris- 
diction of the state. Thus the authority of these boards will not differ 
materially from that of our present law courts. 



—24— 

I shall now take up the second question: How will the decision of the 
boards be enforced? At first thought this question may seem hard to 
answer. Some one says: "How are the great corporations to be brought 
into submission?" Another says: "How is a body of union men to be pun- 
ished if they do not comply with the law?" 

In answer to the first of these two questions I say that no great diffi- 
culty will be experienced in punishing offending corporations. The American 
people have awakened to the fact that the corporations are not invulnerable. 
This is clearly shown by the turn affairs have taken in recent years. In 
answer to the second question I would point out the cases of strikers who 
violate the injunctions of our civil courts. They are compelled to pay the 
penalty the same as any other man. And this is as it should be, for our very 
government is founded on the principle of respect for the law and obedience 
to the decrees of our courts. And when we consider that this condition exists, 
even when public sentiment is divided and in doubt, and when we remember 
that these boards will have that same compulsory power, who can believe 
that the decisions of these boards will not be enforced? 

In answer to the third question: What guides will these boards have to 
aid them in making a dicision? I say these boards will have the right to 
summon experts who can in any way aid them in making a decision. They 
will take testimony and procure other data concerning the labor and skill 
required to perform a given service, the cost of the materials and repairs to 
the employer, the profits of the average employer in a given business, the 
general cost of living, and other evidence relating either to the employer or 
the employee. The boards will be aided to some extent also by the fact that 
deep acting influences at this time cause the wage scale to hover somewhere 
near the true standard. 

The men on these boards will give up a great part of their time to this 
work and will, therefore, become better acquainted with the subject than any 
of their fellow citizens. For this reason they will be better qualified to deter- 
mine upon a just wage scale than any one else; and at least they can arrive 
at a scale that is as just as can be made by human beings. And it may be 
asked whether or not a just wage scale is more apt to be discovered by a mob 
than by a body of men who are guided by reason and who go to the very 
depths of the question. 

We have now shown the principles on which this system rests and as far 
as any man can judge these principles are perfectly sound. And what are 
the benefits to be derived from such a mode of settlement? There will be no 
more riots or acts of violence on the part of hot-headed demagogues; no 
employment of Pinkerton detectives to obscure the real issue and render 
impartial judgment impossible; boycots if they do not disappear entirely will 
lose their awful and insidious power. The boards will not yield to the cries 
of the demagogues to punish the corporations merely because they say so; 
neither will the boards deny justice to the laborers because some of their 
claims may be unfair. However, it would be a vain assertion to say that 
these boards will bring perfect peace and quiet. Such a statement would be 
foolish because no such perfect institution has ever yet existed, but the good 
these tribunals will accomplish certainly justifies their creation. 



—25- 



PRIZE ESSAY FOR 1907-08 

"WASHINGTON IRVING." 

By Winifred Romney. 

Examining the annals of past ages, we find a marked similarity in their 
literary history. In the dim perspective of a nation's origin, a few mediocre 
writers appear. Finally comes a brave, earnest man, a master mind, as 
Homer or Shakespeare, who gives a readier and fuller utterance to the inner 
life of the people, shedding the bright light of his genius over their compara- 
tive obscurity, and laying the foundation of a national literature. Such a 
genius was Washington Irving. 

Previous to his advent there had been no real literature in America. All 
that might be classed under that head, was of a theological, political, or con- 
troversial nature, written by such men as Jonathan Edwards, Benjamin 
Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. This lack of real literature is not accounted 
for entirely by newness of country, but largely by the stern, Puritanical 
influence, and by the strife for political freedom. Yet in striking contrast 
with the austerity of the age arose Irving, the first exemplar of literature in 
its truest sense. 

Irving's appearance and manner were most prepossessing. He was of 
medium height, with a slight tendency towards obesity. He had a high, 
broad forehead, straight nose, gray eyes, dark hair, small mouth, and an 
expression that plainly revealed his lofty character and sweet and kind 
disposition. 

There is a marked resemblance between Irving and his humorously por- 
trayed character, Rip Van Winkle. Irving possessed the same aversion to 
work, and the same disposition to wander as did the "child of his fancy." 
The same kindly spirit pervaded his nature as is found in the gentle bosom 
of Rip Van Winkle. 

He possessed traits that form a desirable character, and reflect an 
amiable disposition. His kindliness is always referred to by his many biogra- 
phers. It is said that he had no enemies; not because he was devoid of a 
will, or of individuality, but because his kindliness of disposition made him 
considerate of others, and deferential to their wishes. This trait is best 
shown by the following anecdote: He was gathering material for a history 
of Mexico, a work he had long anticipated, and one for which he was pecu- 
liarly adapted; but, hearing that Prescott, a rising young author, was also 
contemplating a history on the same subject, he voluntarily relinquished his 
long cherished intentions, in order that the younger author should not be 
compelled to cope with a writer of his long standing reputation. 

Another trait of Irving's character was his generous sympathy. No one 
ever appealed to Irving for sympathy in vain. His sensitive disposition was 
always touched by the least suggestion of pain or sorrow, and, prompted by 
his kindness of heart, he quickly responded to the entreaties of all who 
were seeking alleviation from care or distress. 

His temperament was that of a poet — romantic, emotional and imagina- 
tive. This romance of disposition cast a glamour of rose tinted light over the 
sterner and more practical aspects of life, thus making the world seem sweeter 
to him or less cruel. An anecdote which portrays his romance of disposition, 
and his distaste for practical affairs, is told of his second visit to England: 
He arrived in Liverpool a few days subsequqent to the battle of Waterloo. 
All England was rejoicing that she had been delivered from the hands of 
Napoleon. Irving, however, was so filled with regret because a certain tomb 
had been destroyed in the struggle, that he had no disposition to rejoice over 
the signal victory England had just won, and of which she was so proud. 

Irving was primarily a dreamer. In his wanderings among old ruins, or 



—26— 

places of poetical or historical interest, his vivid imagination would conjure 
up some romantic picture of the past glory of some romantic old pile or 
castle; and in his imagination he would again people it with the inhabitants 
of a by-gone age. Perhaps his happiest moments were spent in that historic 
old pile, the Alhambra, dreaming away the sunny days in delightful indolence, 
and clothing the surrounding objects in the golden garb of poetry. 

Gaiety of nature was one of his most attractive traits. He possessed 
none of the cynicism which characterizes some of our authors, or the pessi- 
mistic views of life which characterize others; but was ever optimistic and 
contented, gratefully accepting what the gods gave, and duly appreciating the 
gifts with which kind Providence had endowed him. 

From early youth Irving possessed a certain roving propensity. In boy- 
hood he whiled away many happy hours in roving among the Catskill moun- 
tains, or in wandering up and down the banks of the Hudson. In later years 
he traveled extensively in foreign countries, making pilgrimages to the shrines 
of different authors, and visiting various places of interest. 

Irving had a boundless capacity for friendship. From boyhood he had 
enjoyed mingling with society, and had won many friends by his charming 
personality and brilliant conversational powers, which were enhanced by his 
quiet and half concealed but ever present humor. Although he numbered 
among his friends noted personages, as Scott, Allston, Moore and Mrs. Sid- 
dons, yet he did not esteem them more highly than those of the lowly 
walks of life. 

Irving was modest and unassuming. The fame and glory he won by his 
excellent writings never elated him. In public he was lionized too much for 
his own comfort and peace of mind. When the success of his first few books 
was so general, he wrote home to some friends: "I feel almost appalled by 
such success, and fearful lest it cannot be real or is not merited, or that I 
shall not act up to the expectations that may be formed." Modesty also pro- 
hibited him from ever using his L. L. D. degree conferred upon him by 
Oxford. 

Irving was an intense patriot. Though absent so many years from his 
native land, and subjected to so many vicissitudes, which might lead one to 
forget his country and friends, yet he ever longed for the time when he might 
return to his loved America. His patriotism is beautifully portrayed by this 
story: He was offered a large salary if he would write for the London Quar- 
terly, but he refused to do so, his excuse being that the Quarterly was hostile 
to his country. This refusal also revealed his courage and strength of 
character. 

From politics Irving always held aloof. They were naturally distasteful 
to him for two reasons: First, because he possessed a poetical temperament, 
and anything savoring so much of practicality was distasteful to him; sec- 
ondly, because his nature abhorred petty meannesses, and as politics were 
more or less corrupt at that time, his better self revolted against intrigues 
of the politicians. Time and again he refused political preferment. He 
refused the mayoralty of New York. He also refused to represent New York 
in congress, and the secretaryship of the navy — all vastly remunerative offices. 
It was with the utmost reluctance that he accepted the position of minister to 
Spain, and his nephew tells an amusing little tale relating to his acceptance: 
" 'It is hard, very hard,' he half murmured to himself, half to me, yet he 
added whimsically enough, being struck with the seeming absurdity of such 
a view, 'I must try to bear it. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.' " 

To know Irving the man is to know Irving the writer, for his works are 
but a reflection of his personality. He possessed to a greater degree than any 
other author the gift of impersonating himself in his books. The same quiet 
and half concealed humor which characterized the man, and made him an 
interesting conversationalist is seen in his productions. "The Legend of 
Sleepy Hollow," "Rip Van Winkle" and "Knickerbocker's History," are good 
illustrations of this humor. He weaves the humor, which characterized his 
personality, into his works in the simplest and most natural way, without 



—27— 

depriving it of its original essence. The charm his books possess is but the 
reflection of the indescribable charm of his personality. In his books his 
gentle spirit glows out as it did from his radiant nature. 

The handling of sentences gives his writings an inimitable charm which 
escapes analysis. Although this attribute of style is indescribable, yet it is 
nevertheless very real, and permeates all the writings he has ever produced. 
It belongs distinctly to his own style. Although Scott's productions have 
been compared to and resemble Irving's in some respects, yet, the charm 
which characterizes the latter's works, is entirely lacking in the works of the 
former. Irving's writings may suffer somewhat in comparison with the works 
of Eliot, Hawthorne, Thackeray and Dickens. His works are not profound as 
are Eliot's and Hawthorne's. He does not, as Eliot, tread the dizzy heights 
of philosophy and psychology, nor, as Hawthorne, become involved in the 
intricate mazes of abstract speculations on the principles of mesmerism. He 
is not, as Thackeray, an expert in handling the sharp tools of cutting satire. 
He may not possess such commanding power over humor and pathos as 
Dickens, nevertheless his works possess a charm that none of these works 
can boast, classics though they are. 

His style is further marked with a certain poetic feeling tinged with 
pathos, as depicted in his moonlight picture of the Alhambra: "A thorough 
change took place in the scene and its associations. The moon gradually 
gained each evening on the darkness of the night, and at length rolled in full 
splendor above the towers, pouring a flood of tempered light into every court 
and hall. The garden beneath my window, before wrapped in gloom, was 
gently lighted up; the orange and citron trees were tipped with silver; the 
fountain sparkled in the moonbeams, and even the blush of the roses was 

faintly visible The temperature of a summer midnight in 

Andalusia is perfectly ethereal. We seem lifted up into a pure atmosphere; 
we feel a serenity of soul, a buoyancy of spirits, an elasticity of frame, which 
renders mere existence happiness; but when moonlight is added to this, the 
effect is enchantment. Under its plastic sway the Alhambra seems to regain 
its pristine glories. Every rent and chasm of time, every mouldering tint and 
weather-stain is gone; the marble resumes its original whiteness; the long 
colonnades brighten in moonbeams; the halls are illuminated with a softened 
radiance, — we treated the enchanted palace of an Arabian tale." 

His simplicity and naturalness are responsible to a large degree for the 
attractiveness of Irving's style. These may be observed throughout his works, 
but are more noticeable in his "Sketch Book." Unity and purity of expres- 
sion are also attributes of his style. "The Broken Heart" and "Rural Life in 
England" illustrate the former; the latter pervades all his writings. 

Irving excelled in the felicitious use of adjectives. He possessed an 
extensive vocabulary and exhibited excellent taste in the choice of adjectives 
most applicable to their nouns. Who, but Irving, would say, "transient 
gaiety," "lurking fancy," "monumental silence," or "indolent enjoyment"? 
His frequent use of adjectives is regarded by some as superfluous; but, read 
a paragraph by Irving, omitting all the descriptive adjectives, does the 
charm remain? 

There is also a fantastic element in his works. In some of his short 
stories, such as the "Bold Dragoon," and the "German Student," he introduces 
a weird and fanciful strain. In many of his stories of the Alhambra he gives 
his fancy full play, and carries us away from the sterner side of life, resting 
our careworn minds from the monotony of human existence. 

Irving also excelled in the writing of short stories. His "Sketch Book," 
"Tales of a Traveler," "Alhambra" and "Bracebridge Hall," will exist and be 
read after his sterner works, such as his lives of Washington and Columbus, 
have passed away. He gave new life to the short story. No author had ever 
before, or has ever since, treated it in the same skillful manner. 

Irving possessed the knack of writing with a sense of locality. He soon 
got the spirit of a place, and wrote about it in the manner best suited to its 
location. Such essays as "Westminster Abbey," "Little Britain" and "Strat- 



—28— 

ford on Avon," are good illustrations of his power to "seize upon the spirit of 
places and fix that spirit in language." This same power enabled him to 
transfer to his pages the atmosphere of the "faded splendor in the Alhambra," 
the romance of Italy of long ago; and this same power enabled him to invest 
his own Hudson valley with the "richness of tradition." 

It may be said that Irving has surpassed all writers in his felicitous 
method of description, which possesses a charm that is entirely lacking in the 
word pictures of other authors. They are vivid and interesting, and, as you 
read them, you fancy yourself in cold New York, gazing with awe and 
admiration on the sublime and majestic Catskills as they raise their "naked 
summits," like grim sentinels, into the fleecy clouds; or far away in sunny 
Spain, viewing with your own eyes, the stern and picturesque beauty, and its 
"snowy summits, gleaming like silver clouds against the deep blue sky." The 
only writer that can cope with him in descriptive powers is Scott, and though 
the latter's descriptions are vivid and interesting, they are devoid of a certain 
inherent sweetness which Irving's never fail to present. 

Irving's works are classics for many reasons: First, because they reflect 
his own personality, and thus reveal the various qualities which made the 
man, as, humor, modesty, kindliness and sympathy; secondly, because he 
possessed the power of giving true pcitures of nature and man. Owing to his 
extreme sensitiveness to the beautiful, he readily appreciated the best in 
nature and humanity, and with his simple and graphic descriptive powers, he 
unerringly presents it to us in a manner which cannot but appeal to our 
interest; thirdly, the human element in his books is of the utmost interest. 
He is no far away visionary; no fanatic with schemes of social, political and 
ecclesiastical reformation; no skeptic with an abnormal and perverted view 
of life, but an intensely human man, who loves, pities and enjoys, who sym- 
pathizes with and compassionates, who has charity for the unfortunate, tears 
for the fallen, and smiles for the rejoicing. He does not preach to you, or 
prate about the weaknesses and foibles of humanity, and the necessity of over- 
coming them, but makes you feel that he is your friend and companion, 
possessing the same ambitions, joys and sorrows as yourself; fourthly, he 
possesses the power to surround all characters and scenes with the glow of 
his own radiant spirit. With his poetic temperament, he can readily clothe a 
scene or character, that would otherwise appear barren and uninteresting, 
with a sheen of romance reflected from his own refulgent nature; lastly, he 
is quick to see the romance and comedy of life. With his sentimental nature, 
he readily separates the romantic from the sordid and practical, and with his 
well developed sense of humor, he instantly detects the ludicrous. 

Irving's service to America cannot be overestimated. He changed the 
spirit of American literature. Before his advent it had been characterized by 
a dark, somber Puritanical element. The general impression prevailing in the 
new world at that time was, that anything either in literature or actual life, 
that was pleasant, humorous or entertaining, bordered on evil. Irving dis- 
pelled this spirit by introducing his sweet, humorous, and oftimes pathetic 
writings. 

He elevated American literature to a classic rank by the recognition his 
books commanded both at home and abroad. America was proud she pos- 
sessed such an author. All England admired him, and it was generally con- 
ceded by those most able to judge, that America had produced a classic 
writer, and thereby had fairly won the right to establish a classic literature. 

Irving was a human benefactor. He performed an immense service for 
man. He occupied his life in the production of books whereby man might be 
entertained and instructed. No one, who has ever read Irving's books can 
say that he has not been royally entertained and has not been made better. 

Irving's purpose for writing, expressed in his own words, has been given 
to us: "If I can by a lucky chance, in these days of evil, rub out one wrinkle 
from the brow of care, or beguile the heavy heart of one moment of sadness; 
if I can now and then penetrate the gatheiing veil of misanthropy, prompt a 
benevolent view of life, make my reader more in good humor with his fellow 



—29— 

beings and himself, surely, surely, I shall not have written entirely in vain." 
The enormous number of his books sold yearly is a silent and indisputable 
testimony that his purpose has been accomplished. 

As a parting tribute to Irving I would say with our beloved poet, Bryant: 
"Farewell! Thou, who hast entered into the rest prepared from the foun- 
dation of the world for serene and gentle spirits like thin. Farewell! Happy 
in thy life, happy in thy death, happier in the reward to which that death 
was the assured passage; fortunate in attracting the admiration of the world 
to thy beautiful writings, still more fortunate in having written nothing which 
does not tend to promote the range of magnanimous forbearance, and gener- 
ous sympathy among thy fellow men; the lightness of that enduring fame, 
which thou hast won on earth, is but a shadowy symbol of the glory to 
which thou art admitted in the world beyond the grave. Thy errand upon 
earth was an errand of peace and good will, and thou art in a region where 
hatred and strife never enter, and where the harmonious activity of those 
who inhabit it acknowledges no impulse less holy, less noble than that of love." 



—30- 



THE ESSAY MEDAL FOR 1908-09 



The medal for the ensuing year will again be offered by Senator Thomas 
H. Carter. The following letter is self-explanatory: 



"Helena, Montana, Sept. 12, 1908. 
"Prof. R. J. Condon, 

"Superintendent of Schools, Helena, Montana. 
"My dear sir: — 

"By direction of Senator Carter I beg to inform you that it will afford 
him much pleasure to again donate a Medal such as the one presented by him 
last year, for the best essay written by any member of the graduating classes 
of the Montana High Schools next spring. Mr. Carter considers it a very 
great pleasure to cooperate in this good work. 

"Very truly yours, 

"E. T. CRAWFORD, 

"Secretary." 



TOPIC FOR THE ESSAY FOR 1908-09 

"WALTER SCOTT" 

[Or any special topic on Scott or his works.] 

SOME SPECIAL TOPICS SUGGESTED BY THE COMMITTEE. 

"Walter Scott as a Story-Teller." 
"Personality of Walter Scott." 
"Walter Scott as a Poet." 
"The Stories Told in Scott's Verse." 
"Chivalry in Scott's Works." 
"History in Scott's Prose and Verse." 
"My Favorite Characters in Scott's Works." 
"Patriotism in Scott's Works." 
"Walter Scott's Heroes." 
"Walter Scott's Heroines." 

"Pen-Pictures from Scott." (Descriptive passages in his prose and verse.) 
"Scott's Portrait Galleries." (Character sketches of Elizabeth, Earl of 
Leicester, et al.) 



31- 



REFERENCES 



BOOKS ON SCOTT AND HIS WORKS. 

Scott's Complete Works, Lib. ed. (1901) 12 vols., 75 cts. ea. (H. M. Cald- 
well & Co., Boston) $9.00 

Scott's Complete Poetical Works. (D. Appleton & Co., N. Y.) $1.00 

Brooks, Sarah W., English Poets and Poetry. (Dana, Estes & Co., N. Y.) $2.00 

Ball, Marg., Sir Walter Scott as a Critic. (1908) The Macmillan Co., 

N. Y.) ~ $100 

Beaver, J. A., Aid to the Study of the "Lady of the Lake." (Whitaker 

& Co., S. F.) 25 cts. 

Carlyle, Thomas, Essay on Scott. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., S. P.) 30 cts. 

Crockett, W. S., The Scott Country. (1902) (The Macmillan Co., N. Y.)....$2.00 

Dawson, W. J., Makers of Modern English, 2 vols., ea. $2.00. (Whitaker 

& Co., S. F.) $4.00 

Dalgleish, W. S., Scott Reader. (Thos. Nelson & Son, N. Y.) 75 cts. 

Gussiott, Harriett, Stories from Waverly for Children, (1902) (Mac- 
millan) $1.00 

Hay, John, Speech at the Unveiling of Bust of Scott in Westminster 

Abbey. (John Lane, N. Y.) 35 cts. 

Henderson, T. F., (editor), Scott's Minstrelsey of the Scottish Border. 

(1902) (Chas. Scribner's Sons, N. Y.) $10.00 

Howells, W. D., My Literary Passions. (Harper Bros., N. Y) $1.50 

Hutton, R. H., Life of Sir Walter Scott. [In "Eng. Men of Letters 
Series:" Two chapters on Scott's poetry.] (Harper Broth- 
ers, N. Y.) 25 cts. and 75 cts. 

Lang, Andrew, Essays in Little. (Chas. Scribner's Sons, N. Y.) $1.00 

Lang, Andrew, Letters to Dead Authors. (Cameo Ed.) (Chas. Scrib- 
ner's Sons, N. Y.) $1.25 

Lang, Andrew, Scott's Lyrics and Ballads. (Chas. Scribner's Sons, N. Y.) $1.75 

Lockhart, J. G., Life of Walter Scott. (1901) 2 vols. (Fred Warne, 

N. Y.) $1.00 

Minto, William, Literature of the Modern Era. (Harper Bros., N. Y.) $1.50 

Morley, John, Life of Sir Walter Scott. (Harper Bros., N. Y.)....25 cts.; 75 cts. 

Pierson, William, Epic Poems of Walter Scott 

Reed, H., Lectures on British Poets 

Rushton, H., Afternoon Lectures. 

Redfern Owen, Wisdom of Sir Walter. [Introduction by Ian Maclaren.] 

(1907) (The Macmillan Co.) $2.00 

Rogers, May, Waverly Dictionary. (1885) (Scott, Foresman & Co., 

Chicago.) $2.00 

Saintsbury, G. E. B., Life of Sir Walter Scott. (Chas. Scribner's 

Sons, N. Y.) 75 c ts. 

Scott, Mary M., Making of Abbotsford. (The Macmillan Co., N. Y.) $3.50 

Shairp, John C, Aspects of Poetry. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., N. Y $1.50 

Stephen, Leslie, Hours in a Library. (1899) 3 vols., see vol. I. (a. 

P. Putnam's Sons, N. Y.) $4.50 

Sullivan, Sir Edw., Tales from Scott. (Little, Brown & Co., Boston.) $1.50 

Sullivan, Sir Edw., Ivanhoe and Rob Roy for Children. (Little, Brown 

& Co., Boston.) $1.00 

Swanwick, A., Poets the Interpreters of their Age. 

Warner, C. D., Library of World's Best Lit., Vol. 33, p. 12995; chapter by 
A. Lang. 

Wilson, J. G., Poets and Poetry of Scotland, 2 vols., (Harper Bros., 

N - Y.) $10 .00 



—32— 

MAGAZINES. 

Academy (London), 60:109 (Feb. 2, '01) "Hudson's Life of Scott."— P. A. 

Graham. 
Amer. Law Rev., 38:507 (July-Aug., '04) "Scott as a Lawyer." — N. McCrim- 

mon. (Same in Green Bag.) 
Atlantic Mo., 90:755 (Dec, '02) "Lockhart's Life of Scott."— H. D. Sedgwick. 

94:664 (Nov., '04) "Was Walter Scott a Poet?"— A. Symons. 

95:300 (Men., '05) "Scott's Poetry."— G. Smith. 
Athenaeum, 2:797 (Dec. 10, '05) "Letters and Reminiscences of Walter 

Scott." — Mrs. Hughes. 
Blackwood's Mag., 162:853 (Dec, '97) "Bride of Lammermoor." — G. Saintsbury. 
Bookman, 15:129 (Apr., '02), 280 (May, '02) "Dramatization of Scott." — P. 

Wilstoch. 
Booklovers' Mag., 2:563 (Dec, '03) "Walter Scott with Portrait."— T. M. 

Parrott. 
Catholic World, 80:434 (Jan., '05) "Abbotsford."— M. M. Scott. 
Century, 36:364 (July, '99) "Unpublished Portraits of Scott." — J. Thomson. 

36:367 (July, '99) A Poem. 

36:368 (July, '99) "Scott's First Love."— F. M. F. Skene. 

44: 424 (July, '03) "Unpublished Letters of Scott."— 

44:567 (Aug., '03) "Later Years of Walter Scott."— 
Chamber's Jour., 78:644 (Oct., '01) "Last Links with Walter Scott."— E. B. 

Simpson. 

79:231 (Apr., '02) "More Recollections of Walter Scott." — 

80:124 (Feb., '03) "Scott as a Churchman." 
Cornhill Mag., 75:448 (Apr., '97) "Story of Scott's Ruin." — L. Stephen. (Same 

in Living Age.) 

87:65 (Jan., *03) "Germ of Waverly Novels." — A. I. Shand. (Same in 

Living Age.) 
Critic, 30:374 (May 29, '97) "Bust of Scott in Westminster Abbey." — 

38:338 (Apr., '01) "Hudson's Life of Scott." — A. Lang. 
Education, 21:308 (Jan.,'01) "Outline Study of Ivanhoe." — Maud E. Kingsley. 
Good Words, 38:235 (Apr., '97) "Walter Scott and His Country."— 
Green Bag, 15:265 (June, '03) "Scott as a Lawyer." — N. McCrimmon. (Same 

in Amer. Law Rev.) 
Harper's Mag., 105:3 (June, '02) "Land of Walter Scott." — W. Sharp. 
Living Age, 213:577 (May 29, '97) "Story of Scott's Ruin." — L. Stephen. 

(Same in Cornhill. 

236:684 (Mch. 14, '03) "Germ of Waverly Novels."— A. I. Shand. (Same 

in Cornhill.) 

245:704 (June 10, '05) "Scott Monument, in Edinburgh," (a poem) — W. 

Watson. 

McClure's Mag., 25:165 (June, '05) "Great Masters of Literature." — G. E. 
Woodberry. 

Macmillan's Mag., 89:110 (Dec, '03) "Gallery of Portraits." — 
Magazine of Art, 26:158 (Feb., '02) "Portraits of Scott."— F. G. Kitton. 
Outlook, 75:811 (Dec 5, '03) "Land of Scott."— H. W. Mabie. 
Scottish Rev., 36:35 (July, '00) "Sir Walter Scott and Blair Adam House."— 
W. Stephen. 

Temple Bar, 129:284 (Mch., '04) "Sir Walter Scott and Heinie."— J. S. 
Henderson. 



RULES GOVERNING THE ESSAY CONTEST. 

[Adopted at a meeting of high school principals, at Missoula, Dec. 27, *07.] 
Amended May 16, 1908. 

1. All members of the graduating classes of the accredited high schools 
in the State of Montana, shall be eligible to compete for the medal. 

2. The topic on which the essay shall be written, shall be selected by a 
committee of three, consisting of the professor of English, the professor of 
literature, and the professor of history at the University. No essay shall 
exceed three thousand words. 

3. Each high school may hold a preliminary contest, about April 1, for 
the purpose of selecting the best essay. The contest may be in charge of one 
of the teachers of English. The principal, the teacher in charge, and the 
student who writes the essay shall sign a statement that the essay is not 
plagiarized. 

4. A type-written copy of the best essay in each preliminary contest, 
marked on the first page with some motto or pseudonym, shall, on or before 
April 15, be sent to the chairman of the committee at the University. The 
signed statement with regard to plagiarism shall be sent with the essay. All 
essays received by the committee shall be submitted to three judges, who 
shall be appointed by the president of the University. The judges, without 
knowing the names of the students who wrote the essays, or what schools are 
represented by them, shall rank and grade each essay, on the following basis: 
Logical development, 45 per cent; composition, 45 per cent; general impression, 
10 per cent. The essay having the highest rank shall be declared the winning 
essay. In case there should be a tie in the ranking, the one having the high- 
est grade (per centage) shall be declared the winning essay. 

5. The name of the high school that wins the prize shall be announced 
at the time of the final high school debate contest. 

6. The prize essay with the name of the writer shall be printed in the 
annual bulletin for 1909-10, of the high school debating league. 



ADDITIONAL PRIZES 

For the year 1908-09. 



H. T. Wilkinson will give a set of books to each of the three de- 
baters of the winning team at the special final contest (the contest 
for honorable mention ) . 



William H. Houston will give a free scholarship (including 
matriculation and athletic fees and laboratory deposit) in the Uni- 
versity of Montana to the student who wins the Dixon medal for the 
year 1908-1909. This scholarship will be given when the student en- 
rolls in the University. 



E. C. Mulroney will give a free scholarship (including matricula- 
tion and athletic fees and laboratory deposit) in the University of 
Montana for the year 1909-10, to the student who wins the Carter 
essay medal for the year 1908-1909. 



THE CARTER ESSAY MEDAL 




WINIFRED ROMNEY, 



Member of the Graduating- Class of the Hamilton High School, June, 1908, 
Winner of the Carter Essay Medal. 



MISSOULA HIGH SCHOOL 




GEORGE P. STONE 

Captain 

FLORENCE MATTHEWS EDWARD BARKER 

STATE HIGH SCHOOL CHAMPION DEBATING TEAM 
For the year 1907-08. 



Florence Matthews, 

Winner of the Dixon Medal, the State High School Champion Debater, 

for the year 1907-08. 



COLUMBUS HIGH SCHOOL 




CLIFFORD A. ROSS 
Captain 



HATHORN B. ANNIN 



CHAS. L. FRASER 



CHAMPION TEAM OF THE EASTERN DISTRICT, 
for the year 1907-08. 



TOWNSEND HIGH SCHOOL 




CHAMPION TEAM OF THE NORTHERN DISTRICT, 
for the year 1907-08. 



LIVINGSTON HIGH SCHOOL 




CHAMPION TEAM OF THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT, 
for the year 1907-08. 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

'"SMEWUtT'S enure* 



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